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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999


Item #d99jun14

“China’s Key Role in Climate Protection,” W. Bach and S. Fiebig, Energy, 23 (4), 253-270 (1998).

An energy analysis of China reveals that it has a 75% dependence on coal, has a high energy intensity, enjoys low energy prices, and is the world’s second largest CO2 emitter. Under business-as-usual conditions, China’s 225 Gt of recoverable fossil fuels will be released to the atmosphere by 2040, producing adverse climatic and ecological effects. Under the Kyoto Protocol, China is to reduce its CO2 emissions by 36%. A microengineering approach indicates that 13 specific measures would reduce emissions by 4600 Mt over ten years. The incremental costs range from $0.09/ton of CO2 for coal-saving stoves to $18.55/ton of CO2 for solar cookers. The total cost to China for implementing these changes would be about $2 billion/year, or about 0.4% of the Chinese GDP.

Item #d99jun15

“Energy Use and CO2 Emissions for Mexico’s Cement Industry,” C. Sheinbaum and L. Ozawa, Energy, 23 (9), 725-732 (1998).

The energy use and CO2 emissions of Mexico’s cement industry were analyzed to estimate the roles that fuel intensity, clinker activity, the cement/clinker ratio, and alternative fuels play (or could play) in the industry’s energy budget. The findings indicate that all factors except clinker activity could be altered to decrease fuel use. CO2 emissions could be reduced by changes in energy intensity and in the clinker/cement ratio.

Item #d99jun16

“Projected Impacts of Appliance Efficiency Standards for the US Residential Sector,” J. G. Koomey et al., Energy, 24 (1), 69-84 (1999).

An analysis of the potential energy, cost, and carbon savings of residential-appliance energy-efficiency standards showed that those standards will save consumers about $30 billion between 1990 and 2010 and that each dollar expended by the federal government in implementing them will produce $165 in savings. The net benefit to cost ratio for these measures in the United States is 3.5, and carbon emissions will be reduced by about 9 Mt each year between 2000 and 2010.

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