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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d98may78

Principles for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading, Union of Industrial and Employers' Confederation of Europe (UNICE), Apr. 1998. Contact Christophe de Callatay (tel: 32 2 237 6511; e-mail:

This position paper from Europe's leading industry trade group calls for the European Union to take the initiative on setting up an international trading scheme, and suggests it devise a scheme to link joint implementation to emissions trading.

Item #d98may79

The Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change: Finished and Unfinished Business, H.E. Ott, 15 pp., Mar. 1998. Available at, or from the author at Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environ. & Energy, Doeppersberg 19, 42 103 Wuppertal, Ger. (tel: 49 202 2492 246; fax: 49 202 2492 250; e-mail:

A legal and political analysis.

Item #d98may80

Climate Policy and the Economics of Technical Advance: Drawing on Inventive Activity, R. Kopp, 20 pp., Jan. 1998 (RFF).

Support among policymakers is growing for climate policies that can reduce emissions at low cost through the use of advanced technology. This study addresses a number of questions about designing such a policy and assessing its cost-reducing potential.

Item #d98may81

The Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change: Background, Unresolved Issues and Next Steps, J.W. Anderson, 35 pp., Jan. 1998 (RFF).

Reviews the scientific evidence and outlines the political history of climate change; discusses the outcome of the Dec. 1997 climate treaty meeting.

Item #d98may82

Climate Change Policy after Kyoto, R.J. Kopp, R.D. Morgenstern, M.A. Toman, pp. 4-6 in Resources, Winter 1998 (RFF). Also available on the RFF Web site.

Outlines several important issues that remain to be resolved before the Kyoto agreement can be ratified by the U.S. Senate, and implementated. Achieving emissions reductions will have costs to the economy; a better understanding of costs and benefits is needed.

Item #d98may83

Rising Sun, Gathering Winds: Policies to Stabilize the Climate and Strengthen Economies (Paper 138), C. Flavin, S. Dunn, 1997 (Worldwatch).

A survey of new government policies shows that only The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have adopted a mix of actions that is likely to lead to emission reductions during the next decade. France, Japan, Sweden and the U.K. have made some progress; the U.S. is in a third tier with Canada and Australia.

Item #d98may84

Climate Change: Mobilizing Effort, Dec. 1997, $38 (OECD).

Discusses the principal themes that emerged during a Sep. 1997 OECD climate change forum. Compares approaches to the problem proposed by governmental and nongovernmental entities and cites a need for a "new partnership" on the issue. Presents the often overlooked views of the finance and insurance industries, among others.

Item #d98may85

Designing Global Climate Policy: Efficient Markets versus Political Markets (Policy Brief 188), J.B. Wiener, 7 pp., Dec. 1997 (CSAB).

An international market-based system of tradeable emission allowances could achieve emission goals at costs savings of at least 50% over inflexible quantity controls, and would stimulate greater innovation and diffusion of technologies. It would also provide an incentive for developing countries to participate. Recommends ways to limit administrative costs.

Item #d98may86

Climate Protection Policies: Can We Afford To Delay? D. Austin, Nov. 1997 (WRI).

Early implementation of policies is crucial to limit costs. Clear policy signals are needed to change the pattern of capital investments and technological developments, which are now focused on fossil fuel energy, toward fuels that are not as carbon intensive.

Item #d98may87

Are Developing Countries Already Doing as Much as Industrialized Countries to Slow Climate Change?, J. Goldemberg, W. Reid, 6 pp., July 1997 (WRI). Full text available on the WRI Web site.

Contrary to common belief, policy changes and conservation and renewable energy programs in developing countries are already leading to significant savings in carbon emissions.

Item #d98may88

Multinational Strategies Compared: An ETSAP Study, Dec. 1997 (ETSAP). Available at

A comparative assessment of alternative emission reduction strategies developed by research groups participating in the OECD/IEA Energy Technology Systems Analysis Program (ETSAP). Flat-rate reductions for all countries are not technically feasible, because many Annex I countries cannot reach reductions of 10-20% in the next decades, and others like India have no technical solutions to even stabilize emissions at the 1990 level. Uniform carbon charges are the most cost-effective, but the least equitable; the "Norwegian formula" is the most equitable but much less cost-effective.

Item #d98may89

International Emissions Trading for Greenhouse Gases, A. McConville, L. Clarke, Sep. 1997, £40 in IEA Coal Res. member countries; educational price £20 (IEA Coal Res.)

A briefing paper that examines possible instruments for emissions control, outlines the principles of trading and experience with trading schemes, and considers issues related to establishing an international trading program.

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