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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d98mar79

"Free Air CO2 Enrichment of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.): Development, Growth and Yield," F. Miglietta (IATA, CNR, P.le delle Cascine, 18-50144 Firenze, Italy; e-mail:, V. Magliulo et al., Global Change Biology, 4(2), 163-172, Feb. 1998.

Concludes that significant stimulation of yield would be expected for potato under future elevated CO2, and that crop phenology will be affected as well.

Item #d98mar80

"Elevated CO2 Concentrations and Stomatal Density: Observations from 17 Plant Species Growing in a CO2 Spring in Central Italy," I. Bettarini (IATA, CNR, P.le delle Cascine, 18-50144 Firenze, Italy; e-mail:, F.P. Vaccari, F. Miglietta, Global Change Biology, 4(1), 17-22, Jan. 1998.

Observations at a natural CO2 spring show that stomata may continue to respond to a rise in atmospheric CO2 in the long term, and plants do not need to adapt by changing the number and the distribution of their stomata.

Item #d98mar81

"Modelling Forest-Growth Response to Increasing CO2 Concentration in Relation to Various Factors Affecting Nutrient Supply," M.U.F. Kirschbaum (CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products, POB E4008, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia;, B.E. Medlyn et al., Global Change Biology, 4(1), 23-41, Jan. 1998.

Concludes from modeling experiments that systems that are more open with respect to nutrient gains and losses are likely to be more responsive to increasing CO2. The response of a particular forest to increasing CO2 can only be predicted if the main factors controlling its nutrient supply and growth are incorporated.

Item #d98mar82

"Effects of Elevated CO2-Grown Loblolly Pine Needles on the Growth, Consumption, Development, and Pupal Weight of Red-Headed Pine Sawfly Larvae Reared Within Open-Top Chambers," R.S. Williams (Biol. Dept., Appalachian State Univ., Boone NC 28608; e-mail:, D.E. Lincoln, R.B. Thomas, Global Change Biology, 3(6), 501-511, Dec. 1997.

Suggests that alterations in pine needle phytochemistry induced by enriched CO2 can affect sawfly performance. However, compensatory measures by larvae, such as choosing to consume more nutritious immature needles, apparently helps offset reductions in the leaf quality of mature needles.

Item #d98mar83

"Responses of Rare Calcareous Grassland Plants to Elevated CO2: A Field Experiment with Gentianella germanica and Gentiana cruciata," M. Fischer (Inst. Umweltwissenschaften, Univ. Zürich, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057, Zürich, Switz.), J. Ecol., 85(5), 681-691, Oct. 1997.

Results suggest that competitive exclusion and extinction of G. germanica would occur at many sites before populations could adapt to increased CO2.

Item #d98mar84

"Thirty Years ofin Situ Tree Growth Under Elevated CO2: A Model for Future Forest Responses?" S. Hättenschwiler (Inst. Botany, Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), F. Miglietta et al., Global Change Biology, 3(5), 463-471, Oct. 1997.

Observations of seedlings near natural CO2 springs indicate that the early regeneration phase of forest stands can be accelerated in CO2-enriched atmospheres, and that maximum biomass per land area may be reached sooner than under lower CO2 concentrations.

Item #d98mar85

"Global Vegetation Change Through the Miocene/Pliocene Boundary," T.E. Cerling (Dept. Geol. & Geophys., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City UT 84112), J.M. Harris et al.,Nature, 389(6647), 153-158, Sep. 11, 1997.

Carbon isotope analyses of the teeth of large mammal fossils indicate that 6-8 million years ago there was a global increase in the biomass of plants using C4 photosynthesis. This change may have been related to a decrease in atmosphere CO2. Results have implications for the elevated levels of CO2 expected in the future.

Item #d98mar86

"Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment Increases Growth and Photosynthesis of Pinus taeda: A 4 Year Experiment in the Field," D.T. Tissue (Dept. Biol., Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock TX 79409; e-mail:, R.B. Thomas, B.R. Strain, Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(9), 1123-1134, Sep. 1997.

If the large growth enhancement observed in loblolly pine were maintained after canopy closure, the trees could be a large sink for fossil carbon emitted to the atmosphere and produce a negative feedback on atmospheric CO2. However, many canopy-level factors affecting forest response to elevated CO2 have not been adequately addressed.

Item #d98mar87

"Effect of Elevated CO2 on Rhizosphere Carbon Flow and Soil Microbial Processes," E. Paterson (Dept. Plant & Soil Sci., Univ. Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB9 2UE, UK), J.M. Hall et al., Global Change Biology, 3(4), 363-377, Aug. 1997.

Critically reviews approaches that have been used to measure rhizodeposition under conditions of increased CO2, then considers evidence for changes in microbial communities and processes, and recently developed methods for studying such changes.

Item #d98mar88

"Elevated CO2 Mitigates Chilling-Induced Water Stress and Photosynthetic Reduction During Chilling," S.R. Boese, D.W. Wolfe (Dept. Fruit & Vegetable Sci., 168 Plant Sci. Bldg., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), J.J. Melkonian, Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(5), 625-632, May 1997.

Experiments in controlled-environment chambers with beans, cucumber and corn support the hypothesis that elevated CO2 improves plant-water relations during chilling and can mitigate photosynthetic depression and chilling damage.

Item #d98mar89

"Effects of Long-Term Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on the Growth and Fruit Production of Sour Orange Trees," S.B. Idso (U.S. Water Conservation Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040; e-mail:, B.A. Kimball, Global Change Biology, 3(2), 89-96, Apr. 1997.

After year five of CO2 enrichment in open-top chambers, there was a moderate drop of productivity enhancement compared to trees grown in ambient conditions, which could be an result of growth obstruction caused by the larger size of the trees in the chambers. The experiment will have to be maintained several more years until trees in the ambient air experience the same degree of obstruction, to determine the long-term equilibrium effects of CO2 enrichment in a spatially confined environment.

Item #d98mar90

"Rice Responses to Drought Under Carbon Dioxide Enrichment," J.T. Baker (Dept. Horticulture, Texas A&M Univ., Agric. Res. & Extension Ctr., POB E, Overton TX 75684; e-mail:, L.H. Allen et al.,Global Change Biology, 3(2), Apr. 1997.

"1. Growth and Yield," 119-128. Experiments in growth chambers show that, in the absence of air temperature increases, future increases in CO2 should promote rice growth and yield, while providing a modest reduction of nearly 10% in water use, increasing drought avoidance.

"2. Photosynthesis and Evapotranspiration," 129-138. CO2 enrichment significantly increased canopy net photosynthetic rate and water-use efficiency, while reducing evapotranspiration, allowing photosynthesis to continue one or two days longer during drought.

Item #d98mar91

"Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Differentially Affects Needle Chloroplast Ultrastructure and Phloem Anatomy in Pinus palustris: Interactions with Soil Resource Availability," S.G. Pritchard (Dept. Botany, 101 Rouse Life Sci. Bldg., Auburn Univ., Auburn AL 36849), C.M. Peterson et al., Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(4), 461-471, Apr. 1997.

Results suggest that, in nature, long-leaf pine seedlings may not benefit from a doubling of CO2, especially when soil resources are limiting.

Item #d98mar92

"Decomposition of Litter Produced Under Elevated CO2: Dependence on Plant Species and Nutrient Supply," V.M. Franck,..F.S. Chapin III (Dept. Integrative Biol., Univ. California, Berkeley CA 94720; e-mail: et al., Biogeochem., 36(3), 223-237, Mar. 1997.

Concludes from experiments and the literature that the effects of elevated CO2 on decomposition and N release from litter are highly species specific. The results do not support the hypothesis that CO2 effects on litter quality consistently lead to decreased nutrient availability in nutrient-limited ecosystems exposed to elevated CO2.

Item #d98mar93

"Virus-Induced Differences in the Response of Oat Plants to Elevated Carbon Dioxide," C.M. Malmström (Dept. Integrative Biol., Univ. California, Berkeley CA 94720), C.B. Field,Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(3), 178-188, Mar. 1997.

Contrary to expectation, plants infected with barley yellow dwarf virus showed greater biomass responses to CO2 enrichment than did healthy ones. CO2 enrichment may enhance the virus reservoir by increasing the size and persistence of infected plants. Pathogens deserve attention as one of the yet to be explored determinants of CO2 response.

Item #d98mar94

"The Combined Effects of CO2 Concentration and Solar UV-B Radiation on Faba Bean Grown in Open-Top Chambers," A.J. Visser (Dept. Ecol., Vrije Univ., De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Neth.), M. Tosserams et al., Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(3), 189-199, Mar. 1997.

Results indicate that part of the "chamber effects" on plant height often described in the literature might be explained by the absence of solar UV-B radiation in these chambers.

Item #d98mar95

"Combined Effects of Elevated CO2 and Air Temperature on Carbon Assimilation of Pinus taeda Trees," R.O. Teskey (D.B. Warnell Sch. Forest Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens GA 30621), Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(3), 373-380, Mar. 1997.

Branches of 22-year-old loblolly pine treated in a plantation showed enhanced net carbon assimilation in the third year of CO2 enrichment. An imposed 2°C increase in air temperature only had slight effects on net assimilation and growth.

Item #d98mar96

"Effects of Elevated CO2 on Leaf Gas Exchange in Beech and Oak at Two Levels of Nutrient Supply: Consequences for Sensitivity to Drought in Beech," J. Heath, G. Kerstiens (Div. Biol. Sci., Inst. Environ. & Biol. Sci., Lancaster Univ., Lancaster LA1 4YQ, UK), Plant, Cell & Environ., 20(1), 57-67, Jan. 1997.

Apparently beech may substantially increase whole-plant water consumption in elevated CO2, which puts it at risk in drought. The 25% CO2 increase over the past two centuries may have already led to some loss of drought resistance in beech.

Item #d98mar97

"Tree Ring Responses to Elevated CO2 and Increased N Deposition in Picea abies," S. Hättenschwiler (Inst. Botany, Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), F.H. Schweingruber, Ch. Körner, Plant, Cell & Environ., 19(12), 1369-1378, Dec. 1996.

Results suggest that rising CO2 will not lead to enhanced radial stem growth of spruce, but atmospheric deposition of N will, and in some regions is probably already doing so. But elevated CO2 will lead to denser wood and alter its mechanical properties.

Item #d98mar98

"Plant Species Mediate Changes in Soil Microbial N in Response to Elevated CO2," B.A. Hungate (Smithsonian Environ. Res. Ctr., Edgewater MD 21037), J. Canadell, F.S. Chapin III, Ecology, 77(8), 2505-2515, Dec. 1996.

It is likely that plant species composition will partly determine the direction of changes in soil N cycling in response to elevated CO2.

Item #d98mar99

"Long-Term Decomposition of Grass Roots as Affected by Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," J.H. van Ginkel (AB-DLO Res. Inst. for Agrobiol., Dept. Soil Ecol., POB 14, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Neth.), A. Gorissen, J.A. van Veen,J. Environ. Qual., 25(5), 1122-1128, Sep.-Oct. 1996.

The combination of higher root yields at elevated CO2 combined with decreased root decomposition will probably lead to a longer residence time of C in the soil and to higher C storage.

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