February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 11, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1998
OZONE DEPLETION: Ozone Chemistry and Physics
Instrument Measures Ozone and Aerosols," J.A. Kaye (NASA-MTPE, Washington DC 20546),
R.D. McPeters et al.,Eos, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union, 79(5), 57, 63, Feb.
New instruments launched in 1996 have provided new and better information about ozone
distribution, SO2 concentrations following large volcanic eruptions, the distributions of
UV-absorbing aerosols (including ash plumes) in the troposphere, and the flux of UV
reaching the Earth's surface.
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Due to Mountain-Induced Atmospheric Waves," K.S.
Carslaw (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-55020 Mainz, Ger.; e-mail:
carslaw@mpch-mainz), M. Wirth et al.,Nature, 391(6668), 675-678, Feb. 12,
Describes aircraft observations and model calculations to show that mountain-induced
waves lower temperatures locally and enhance ozone destruction. This process occurs in
several regions of the Arctic, and may explain the underprediction of ozone depletion by
3-D models of the Arctic stratosphere.
"The Effect of
Uncertainties in Kinetic and Photochemical Data on Model Predictions of Stratospheric
Ozone Depletion," D.J. Fish (Dept. Meteor., Univ. of Reading, Whiteknights, POB 243,
Reading RG6 6BB, UK), M.R. Burton,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D21), 25,537-25,542,
Nov. 20, 1997.
This analysis shows that Arctic ozone destruction can be modeled with an uncertainty of
25% (1 sigma); two reactions out of over 100 account for more than a third of the
uncertainty. Midlatitude uncertainty is 50%.
of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion in Rocket Exhaust Plumes," M.N. Ross (Environ.
Systems, The Aerospace Corp., POB 92957, Los Angeles CA 90009; e-mail:
email@example.com), J.R. Benbrook et al.,Nature, 390(6655), 62 ff, Nov.
Measurements in the wake of two Titan IV rockets show that ozone dropped near zero
temporarily across regions 4-8 km wide. However, exhaust from solid-fuel rockets probably
has no globally significant impact on stratospheric chemistry.
Reexamination of the Impact of Anthropogenically Fixed Nitrogen on Atmospheric N2O and the
Stratospheric O3 Layer," C. Nevison (NOAA/ERL, R/E/AL8, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org), E. Holland,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D21),
25,519-25,536, Nov. 20, 1997.
Calculations show that continued growth in the rate of anthropogenic nitrogen fixation,
mainly related to crop production, would cause a small loss of ozone, which would be
superimposed upon a larger recovery due to the phaseout of anthropogenic halocarbons.
Chlorine Chemistry in the Tropopause Region," S. Solomon (Aeronomy Lab., NOAA,
R/E/AL8, 325 S. Broadway, Boulder CO 80303; e-mail: email@example.com), S. Borrmann et
al.,J. Geophys. Res., 102(D17), 21,411-21,429, Sep. 20, 1997.
Uses satellite observations of cloud properties and frequencies to show that cirrus
clouds can provide surfaces for ozone destruction, especially near the midlatitude
tropopause of the Northern Hemisphere in summer.
Destruction of Stratospheric Ozone," D.J. Lary (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge,
Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org),J. Geophys. Res.,
102(D17), 21,515-21,526, Sep. 20, 1997.
Reviews the main ozone destroying catalytic cycles operating in the stratosphere.
Cycles involving HO2 and halogens (especially bromine) are particularly important.
Year Record of Stratospheric Hydrogen Chloride," L. Wallace (Natl. Optical Astronomy
Observatories, POB 26732, Tucson AZ 85726; e-mail: email@example.com), W. Livingston,
D.N.B. Ball,Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(19), 2363-2366, Oct. 1, 1997.
Ground-based spectroscopic observations of the sun show a three-to-four fold increase
in HCl from 1971 to 1997, although the rate of increase may have slowed around 1990.
Composition of Liquid Stratospheric Aerosols," K.S. Carslaw (Max Planck Inst. Chemie,
Mainz, Ger.), S.L. Clegg,Rev. Geophys., 35(2), 125-154, May 1997.
Reviews thermodynamic models of the liquid phase and implications for our understanding
of stratospheric ozone destruction.
Daily Wintertime Temperatures in the Northern Stratosphere," S. Pawson (Inst.
Meteor., Carl-Heinrich-Becker-Weg 6-10, 12165 Berlin, Ger.;
firstname.lastname@example.org), B. Naujokat,Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(5),
575-578, Mar. 1, 1997.
Examination of a 31-year record of daily temperatures shows that the area cold enough
for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds increased noticeably over the period.
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Index of Abbreviations