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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d98jun28

"Recent Trends in Energy-Related CO2 Emissions," J. Ellis (Intl. Energy Agency, 9 rue de la Fédération, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France; e-mail:, Energy Policy, 26(3), 159-166, Feb. 1998.

Presents trends in national, regional and global emissions from fossil fuel combustion, focusing on Annex I (industrialized) countries, to help policy makers develop targeted and efficient emission-limitation policies.

Item #d98jun29

"CO2 Emission Intensities in Developed Countries 1980-1994," J.W. Sun (Turku Sch. Econ., POB 100, FIN-20521, Turku, Finland; e-mail: JSUN@ra.aboli), P. Malaska, Energy, 23(2), 105-112, Feb. 1998.

Using a decomposition model, concludes that CO2 emission intensity (CO2 emitted per unit GDP) decreased by 33% over the period, due to a decrease in energy intensity (20%) and to fuel switching (30%). However, the decrease has slowed recently.

Item #d98jun30

"Structural Decomposition of Industrial CO2 Emission in Taiwan: An Input-Output Approach," Y.F. Chang (Dept. Environ. Eng., Natl. Cheng Kung Univ., 1 University Rd., Tainan 701, Taiwan ROC), S.J. Lin, Energy Policy, 26(1), 5-12, 1998.

Analysis of trends for 1981-1991 provide widely applicable information regarding the characteristics and key factors of CO2 emissions during industrial development.

Item #d98jun31

"Gaseous Emissions and Oxygen Consumption in Hydroelectric Dams: A Case Study in French Guyana," C. Galy-Lacaux (Lab. d'Aérologie, UMR CNRS/UPS 5560, 14 av. Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse Cedex, France; e-mail:, R. Delmas et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 11(4), 471-483, Dec. 1997.

Measured methane, CO2 and hydrogen sulfide emissions during the filling of a reservoir that flooded 300 km-2 of tropical forest. About 10% of the carbon stored in soil and vegetation was released within the two-year period.

Item #d98jun32

"Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Recent Trends in Estonia," J.-M. Punning (Inst. Ecol., Kevade 2, EE001 Tallinn, Estonia), M. Ilomets et al., Ambio, 26(8), 493-498, Dec. 1997.

Reports on the Estonia Country Study, initiated with the U.S. Country Studies Program.

Item #d98jun33

"International Greenhouse Gas Inventory Systems: A Comparison Between CORINAIR and IPCC Methodologies in the EU," J.E. Salt (Loss Prevention Council, Melrose Ave., Borehamwood, Herts WD6 2BJ, UK), A. Moran, Global Environ. Change, 7(4), 317-336, Dec. 1997.

Compares the several different approaches used by the 15 EU countries in compiling their IPCC inventories for the climate convention. The two major formats used (CORINAIR and IPCC) have discrepancies at both the sector and gas levels that by chance cancel out when aggregated at the EU level.

Item #d98jun34

"An Assessment of World Hydrocarbon Resources," H.-H. Rogner (Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems, Univ. Victoria, POB 3055, Victoria BC V8W 3P6, Can.), Ann. Rev. Energy Environ., 22, 217-262, 1997.

Typical assessments of fossil fuel reserves focus on those that can be exploited with current technology, thereby seriously underestimating the long-term availability of hydrocarbons. This conveys the false message that CO2 emissions will be reduced automatically as the world runs out of these fuels. This analysis shows that neither hydrocarbon resource availability nor costs are likely to automatically help wean the global energy system from the use of fossil fuel during the next century.

Item #d98jun35

"Estimates of CO2 Emissions in Shanghai (China) in 1990 and 2010," W. Qiang (Inst. Environ. Sci. & Eng., Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, PRC; e-mail:, W. Dahui et al., Energy, 22(10), 1015-1017, Oct. 1997.

Compares estimates for Shanghai with those of other regions of the world. There exists a large potential for reduction of CO2 emissions in Shanghai.

Item #d98jun36

"Computer Modelling of the Rural Energy System and of CO2 Emissions for Bangladesh," B.K. Bala (Dept. Farm Power & Machinery, Bangladesh Agric. Univ., Mymensingh 2202, Bangladesh), Energy, 22(10), 999-1003, Oct. 1997.

Projects rural energy supply and demand, and assesses the contributions to global warming. Cooking with very inefficient stoves consumes a major share of the fuel. Most of the biomass comes from crop wastes, but pressure on forests for fuelwood is high. Bangladesh is responsible for a small fraction of the world's total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, but could be seriously affected by climate change.

Item #d98jun37

"Satellite Inventory of Human Settlements Using Nocturnal Radiation Emissions: A Contribution for the Global Toolchest," C.D. Elvidge (Solar-Terres. Physics, Natl. Geophys. Data Ctr., 325 S. Broadway, Boulder CO 80303; e-mail:, K.E. Baugh et al., Global Change Biol., 3(5), 387-395, Oct. 1997.

Demonstrates how time series data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program may be used to spatially apportion population and energy related greenhouse gas emissions.

Item #d98jun38

"Anthropogenic Forcing on Methane Efflux from Polluted Wetlands (Adyar River) of Madras City, India," R. Ramesh (Natl. Physical Lab., Krishnan Rd., New Delhi 110 012, India), Ambio, 26(6), 369-374, Sep. 1997.

Measurements of methane emissions throughout a year indicate that due to human interference in the ecosystem, emissions are more than twice as high as from unpolluted wetlands. Emissions were reduced significantly by seawater at the confluence of the river with the Bay of Bengal.

Item #d98jun39

"Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Landfill Cover Soils in Sweden," G. Börjesson (Dept. Microbiol., Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7025, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), B.H. Svensson, Tellus, 49B(4), 357-363, Sep. 1997.

Measurements at four sites showed emissions to be higher where sewage sludge instead of mineral soil was used as a landfill cover. Emissions are comparable to those from most fertilizers.

Item #d98jun40

"Energy and CO2 Emissions in India: Increasing Trends and Alarming Portents," L. Srivastava (Policy Analysis, Tata Energy Res. Inst., Darbari Seth Block, India Habitat Ctr., Lodi Rd., New Delhi 110 003, India), Energy Policy, 25(11), 941-949, Sep 1997.

Presents some of the indicators of energy use, and short- and medium-term projections for energy demand and their implications for CO2 emissions. Discusses measures needed to ensure more effective utilization of energy, the current reforms in India's energy sector, and the role of appropriate energy pricing.

Item #d98jun41

"Characteristics of Methane Emissions from Different Vegetations on a Wetland," A. Sugimoto (Ctr. Ecol. Res., Kyoto Univ., 4-1-23 Shimosakamoto, Otsu 521-01, Japan; e-mail:, N. Fujita, Tellus, 49B(4), 382-392, Sep. 1997.

Sphagnum-dominated bogs have relatively low methane emissions, but sphagnum can easily be replaced by other wetland plants if the water becomes rich in nutrients from water pollution or from a change in water circulation. This will increase methane emissions.

Item #d98jun42

"Measurement of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Plumes from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska Oil Fields," S.B. Brooks (Atmos. Turbulence & Diffusion Div., NOAA, POB 2456, Oak Ridge TN 37831), T.L. Crawford, W.C. Oechel, J. Atmos. Chem., 27(2), 197-207, June 1997.

Based on aircraft measurements, this article estimates that CO2 plume emissions from oil production are equivalent to CO2 emissions from 7-10 million hectares of arctic tussock tundra.

Item #d98jun43

"Aerosols and Climate: Anthropogenic Emissions and Trends for 50 Years," M.E. Wolf (Radian Intl., 10389 Old Placerville Rd., Sacramento CA 95827; e-mail:, G.M. Hidy, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D10), 11,113-11,121, May 27, 1997.

Describes a global inventory of anthropogenic particulate emissions for the period 1990-2040, including both primary particulate emissions and secondary contributions from atmospheric chemical reactions, particularly those involving

Item #d98jun44

"Tropospheric SF6: Observed Latitudinal Distribution and Trends, Derived Emissions and Interhemispheric Exchange Time," L.S. Geller (CMDL, NOAA, 325 S. Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.W. Elkins et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 24(6), 675-678, Mar. 15, 1997.

The most potent greenhouse gas, sulfur hexafluoride is thought to be solely anthropogenic and is used for insulating electrical equipment. This article reports global measurements, based on a new calibration scale and various NOAA CMDL measurements campaigns around the world. Estimates an overall mixing ratio growth rate of about 7% per year for early 1996.

Item #d98jun45

"Carbon Intensity and Economic Development 1962-1991: A Brief Exploration of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," J.T. Roberts (Tulane Univ., New Orleans, La.), P.E. Grimes, World Development, 25(2), 191-198, Feb. 1997.

The relationship between national CO2 emissions per unit GDP and the level of economic development has changed from essentially linear in 1962 to a strongly nonlinear inverted-U curve in 1991. This is the result not of groups of countries passing through stages of development, but of efficiency improvements in a small number of wealthy countries combined with worse performance in the others. The relation is likely to deepen due to constraints on poorer countries in the world economy.

Item #d98jun46

"Energy Demand and Supply, 1900-2100," L. Schrattenholzer (IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria), Science Vision, 3(1), 39-57, 1997. Released as report RR-98-4, by IIASA, in March 1998; e-mail:

Describes CO2DB, a data base for personal computers covering more than 1400 technologies, that contains information on their environmental and economic characteristics as well as technology diffusion and transfer.

Item #d98jun47

"Recent Trends in Residential Energy Use in OECD Countries and Their Impact on Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Comparative Analysis of the Period 1973-1992," L.S. Schipper (Intl. Energy Studies, Lawrence Berkeley Natl. Lab., MS-90-4000, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley CA 94720), R. Haas, C. Sheinbaum, Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1(2), 167-196, 1996.

Presents a detailed analysis of significant changes in residential energy use over the period that resulted mainly from more efficient energy use in response to higher energy prices, from energy efficiency programs, and from the appearance of new technologies for saving energy.

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