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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d98feb14

Special issue: Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies and Measures in Developing and Transition Countries, Applied Energy, 56(3-4), 1997 (Elsevier Science Pubs.).

Contains papers resulting from activities under the U.S. Country Studies Program. [For a list of other special journal editions related to Program activities, see]

Item #d98feb15

"Feasibility of Large-Scale Biofuel Production: Does an Enlargement of Scale Change the Picture?" M. Giampietro (Ist. Nazionale della Nutrizione, Via Ardeatina 546, 00178 Rome, Italy; e-mail:, S. Ulgiati, D. Pimentel,Bioscience, 47(9), 587-600, Oct. 1997.

This critical review of the existing literature concludes that large-scale biofuel production is not an alternative to the current use of oil, and is not even an advisable option to cover a significant fraction of it. The biomass of a future, more highly populated world is likely to be needed for other purposes, such as food and natural ecosystems.

Item #d98feb16

"Electric Power Deregulation: Will It Mean Dirtier Air?" R. Begley,Environ. Sci. & Technol., 31(10), 462A-465A, Oct. 1997.

Because of all the attention being paid in the U.S. to the potential environmental impacts of electricity industry restructuring, it seems likely that such impacts will be assessed and considered in final legislation. But it is uncertain that such considerations will lead to new, stricter regulations.

Item #d98feb17

"Air Pollution Taxation: An Empirical Survey," D. Cansier (Dept. Econ., Tübingen Univ., Melanchthonstr. 30, D-72074, Tübingen, Ger.), R. Krumm,Ecol. Econ., 23(1), 59-70, Oct. 1997.

Examines existing taxation of CO2, SO2 and nitrogen oxide emissions in the Scandinavian countries, The Netherlands, France and Japan, comparing political motivations and technical factors. Generalizes on the concepts of the current practices.

Item #d98feb18

Special issue: Sustainable Management for Climate Change Mitigation: Monitoring and Verification of Greenhouse Gases, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 2(2-3), 1997. (See New Journal section of Prof. Publications, Global Climate Change Digest, Dec. 1997.)

Item #d98feb19

"A Method for Permanent Disposal of CO2 in Solid Form," D.P. Butt (POB 1663, MS G755, Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos NM 87545), K.S. Lackner et al., World Resource Review, 9(3), 324-336, Sep. 1997.

Analyzes the storage of CO2 as magnesium carbonate, which would have minimal environmental impacts. Initial estimates indicate the process would add about three cents per kilowatt hour to the cost of electricity.

Item #d98feb20

"Greenhouse Gas Emission Impacts of Alternative-Fueled Vehicles: Near-Term vs. Long-Term Technology Options," M.Q. Wang (Ctr. Transport. Res., Energy Systems Div., Argonne Natl. Lab., Bldg. 362/B215, Argonne IL 60439),World Resource Review, 9(3), 286-300, Sep. 1997.

Shows that near-term technologies have small to moderate effects on vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, while the long-term technologies, especially those using renewable energy, have far greater potential. R&D must continue on the latter so they can compete successfully with conventional vehicle technology.

Item #d98feb21

"Regional vs. Global? Will Strategies for Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Electric Utilities Increase Carbon Dioxide Emissions?" J.C. Randolf (Sch. Public & Environ. Affairs, Indiana Univ. SPEA 441, Bloomington IN 47405), N. Dolsak,World Resource Review, 9(3), 337-358, Sep. 1997.

Examines the CO2 emission implications of two strategies for reducing SO2 emissions in six midwestern U.S. electric utilities that use high-sulfur coal: switching to lower sulfur coal, and flue gas desulfurization.

Item #d98feb22

"The Carbon Crop: Continued,"Science, 277(5332), 1589-1590, Sep. 12, 1997.

Letters regarding afforestation; hydrogen energy; and calcerous algae as a carbon sink.

Item #d98feb23

"Does Environmental Impact Assessment Really Support Technological Change? Analyzing Alternatives to Coal-Fired Power Stations in Denmark," H. Lund (Dept. Development and Planning, Aalborg Univ., Fibigerstraede 11, DK-9220 Aalborg East, Denmark), F. Hvelplund,Environ. Impact Assess. Rev., 17(5), 357-370, Sep. 1997.

Analysis of three case studies in Denmark shows that because environmental impact assessment is implemented on a regional basis, it does not support the technological change needed to help reduce CO2 emissions.

Item #d98feb24

"Fossil-Fuel Carbon Emission Control in Irrigated Maize Production," B.D. Wind (Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, POB 679, Loveland CO 80539), W.W. Wallender,Energy, 22(8), 827-846, Aug. 1997.

Gives an economic analysis of total carbon emissions, including those from fertilizing and irrigation. The most effective means of reducing fossil fuel carbon emissions at a minimum reduction in gross returns is increasing the price of nitrogen fertilizer, rather than levying a carbon tax.

Item #d98feb25

"Achieving Ecologically-Motivated Reductions of Canadian CO2 Emissions," L.D.D. Harvey (Dept. Geog., Univ. Toronto, 100 St. George St., Toronto ON M5S 3G3, Can.; e-mail:, R. Torrie, R. Skinner, Energy, 22(7), 705-724, July 1997.

Explores various measures by which Canada could achieve CO2 emission reductions of 50% or 75%. They include fundamental changes such as constant economic output from energy-intensive industries, limiting light vehicle travel, generation of most electricity from renewable energy, and the use of hydrogen produced by renewable energy.

Item #d98feb26

"Economic Development, Poverty Reduction and Carbon Emissions in India," N.S. Murthy (Indira Gandhi Inst. of Develop. Res., General Vaidya Marg, Goregaon (E), Mumbai-40065, India), M. Panda, J. Parikh,Energy Economics, 19(3), 327-354, July 1997.

Analyzes energy consumption using an input-output model for 1990, and for 2005 with alternative energy efficiency programs. Ambitious poverty reduction programs would increase the growth rate of CO2 emissions about 1%, but energy efficiency programs would nearly compensate.

Item #d98feb27

"Assessing Global Impacts at Sector and Project Levels," C. George (EIA Ctr., Dept. Planning & Landscape, Univ. Manchester, Oxford Rd., Manchester M13 9PL, UK), Environmental Impact Assessment Rev., 17(4), 227-247, July 1997.

Discusses ways to insure that a project's impacts are consistent with global sustainability objectives, using examples relating to greenhouse gas emissions and habitat loss.

Item #d98feb28

"Simulating Effects of Fire on Gaseous Emissions and Atmospheric Carbon Fluxes from Coniferous Forest Landscapes," R.E. Keane (Intermountain Res. Sta., Fire Sci. Lab., USDA Forest Service, POB 8089, Missoula MT 59807), C.C. Hardy et al.,World Resource Review, 9(2), 177-205, June 1997.

Uses a mechanistic forest succession model to examine long-term trends in emissions of particles, methane, CO, and CO2 under current, historical and future fire regimes in Glacier National Park. The model indicates that temperate and sub-boreal coniferous forest landscapes with fire tend to respire less carbon, even when carbon emissions from fire are included. Discusses potential implications for wildland fire management and the global carbon cycle.

Item #d98feb29

"Research for Developing Carbon Dioxide Disposal and Utilization," M. Aresta (Dept. Chem., Univ. Bari, Bari 70126, Italy),World Resource Review, 9(2), 248-256, June 1997.

Discusses the technology and economics of methods for disposal and utilization of CO2 produced by fossil fuels. These approaches deserve research and development in view of the fact that coal is estimated to be available for the next two or three centuries.

Item #d98feb30

"Possibilities for Carbon Sequestration in Tropical and Subtropical Soils," N.H. Batjes (Intl. Soil Reference & Info. Ctr., POB 353, 6700 AJ Wageningen, Neth.), W.G. Sombroek,Global Change Biology, 3(2), 161-173, Apr. 1997.

A short review that presents recent data on organic carbon and nitrogen reserves in soils, and reviews possibilities for long-lasting, enhanced sequestration of carbon through management of land and water resources. A current database and a global monitoring system are needed. Enhanced sequestration is more of social and policy (rather than technology) challenge.

Item #d98feb31

"Impacts of Growth and Structural Change on CO2 Emissions of Developing Countries," X. Han, L. Chatterjee (Boston Univ., Boston, Mass.), World Development, 25(3), 395-407, Mar. 1997.

Uses a decomposition model to estimate the effects of growth of GDP and changes in industrial structure, fuel mix and energy efficiency on the CO2 emissions of nine developing countries. Discusses policy implications. International financial commitments are needed to develop energy-efficient technology in developing countries.

Item #d98feb32

"Management of Forest Fires to Maximize Carbon Sequestration in Temperate and Boreal Forests," D.E. Guggenheim (Conservancy of Southwest Florida, 1450 Merrihue Dr., Naples FL 34102),World Resource Review, 9(1), 46-57, Mar. 1997.

Uses a forest growth model and three measures of carbon offset achievement to determine the effects of prescribed burning. Concludes that using fire as a management tool can be more effective at carbon sequestration than fire suppression, and that fire management strategies could be more effective than afforestation.

Item #d98feb33

"The Potential for Increasing Carbon Storage in United States Unreserved Timberlands by Reducing Forest Fire Frequency: An Economic and Ecological Analysis," B.L. Sohngen (Dept. Agric. Econ., Ohio State Univ., 2120 Fyffe Rd., Columbus OH 43210), R.W. Haynes,Clim. Change, 35(2), 179-197, Feb. 1997.

Links the impact of fire damage on forests with an economic model of the U.S. forest sector. If fire frequency is reduced from its current level, carbon storage can be increased in unreserved U.S. timberlands over the period 1990 to 2040.

Item #d98feb34

"Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Amazonian Hydroelectric Reservoirs: The Example of Brazil's Tucuruí Dam as Compared to Fossil Fuel Alternatives," P.M. Fearnside (Natl. Inst. for Res. in the Amazon—INPA, CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; e-mail:,Environ. Conserv., 24(1), 64-75, Mar. 1997.

Uses a tropical case study to illustrate how the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs should be calculated and compared with those of alternative energy sources such as fossil fuels. The bulk of emissions from hydroelectric generation occur early in the lifetime of the project, while those from fossil fuel generation are constant in proportion to the power generated. Results show that the selected method of time preference is a key factor in the outcome. For instance, with low annual discount rates (1-2%) the global warming impact of the Tucurui Dam is 3-4 times less than that of fossil fuel, but the situation reverses above a discount rate of 15%.

Item #d98feb35

"Investigating Strategies to Reduce CO2 Emissions from the Electricity Sector: The Case of Greece," S. Vassos, A. Vlachou (Dept. Econ., Athens Univ. of Econ. & Business, 76 Patission St., Athens 144 34, Greece), Energy Policy, 25(3), 327-336, Feb. 1997.

Uses an economic engineering model to explore possibilities on both the supply side and the demand side, and to estimate the optimal tax required to achieve emission control.

Item #d98feb36

Special issue: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on CO2 Fixation and Efficient Utilization of Energy (Tokyo, Oct. 1995), Energy, 22(2-3), Feb.-Mar. 1997 (Pergamon Press). Contains 38 papers; five of wider interest are listed here.

"A Comparison of Greenhouse Mitigation Options," R.A. Reck (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins CO 80523; e-mail: Reck@ANL.GOV), K.J. Hoag, 115-120. Surveys a wide variety of technological and market-based options for mitigation. The former include extraction of CO2 by a solvent during integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation. Concludes that to optimize options for mitigation of climate change, a complex global strategy is needed that accounts for both local and regional concerns.

"Methodology and Evaluation of Priorities for Energy and Environmental Research Projects," T. Kagazyo,..K. Hijikata (Tokyo Inst. of Technol., 2-12-1 Ohokayama, Meguroku, Tokyo 152, Japan), 121-129. Uses an analytic process that examines a hierarchy of technological, environmental and social factors of proposed research projects. Applies this process to develop short-term to long-term planning strategies for Japan, less-developed countries, and the world.

"CO2 Mitigation with New Energy Systems," K. Yamada (Dept. Chem. System Eng., Univ. Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113, Japan; e-mail:, K. Tanaka, 131-135. Estimates possible emission reductions in Japan that would result from the use of solar energy and fuel cells for vehicles and other applications.

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technology: An Overview of the CO2 Capture and Sequestration Studies and Further Activities of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme," H. Audus (IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Prog., CRE Group Ltd., Stoke Orchard, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, GL52 4RZ, UK; e-mail:, 217-221. Summarizes findings of the first phase of this international collaboration supported by 16 countries and several industrial organizations. Capture of CO2 adds substantially to the cost of power generation; the most appropriate technology depends on the type of power plant. Storage of CO2 (as in the ocean) is unproved but relatively inexpensive, but subject to major uncertainties about environmental impacts and security. Utilization of CO2 for making chemicals has limited potential.

"Mitigation of Global Warming Under Sustainability Constraints," H. Ishitani, Y. Miyoshi, R. Matsuhashi (Dept. Geosystem Eng., Univ. Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo 113, Japan; e-mail:, 223-227. Develops an approach for analyzing sustainable energy technologies under restrictions on resources and environmental impact. Evaluates mitigation measures such as disposal of CO2 and solar power, and shows how sustainability influences the cost-effectiveness of measures taken.

Item #d98feb37

"Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydropower: The State of Research in 1996," L. Gagnon (Environ. Dept., Hydro-Québec, 75 René Lévesque W., Montréal PQ H2Z 1A4, Can.), J.F. van de Vate,Energy Policy, 25(1), 7-13, Jan. 1997.

Reports on findings of a recent expert meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency on the assessment of greenhouse gases from hydropower. Considers both emissions during construction and those resulting from flooding to create reservoirs. In most cases, hydropower plants are a good alternative to fossil fuel generation in cold climates, but this may not be the case in humid tropical climates, where research on this issue is badly needed.

Item #d98feb38

"Inventory of Strategies for Reducing Anthropogenic Emissions of N2O and Potential Reductions of Emissions in the Netherlands," C. Kroeze (Inst. for Environ. & Clim. Res., Wageningen Agric. Univ., POB 9101, 6700 HB Wageningen, Neth.),Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1(2), 115-137, 1996.

Gives an overview of strategies that exist to reduce N2O emissions from all major sources: conventional power plants, fluidized bed combustion, industrial production of adipic and nitric acids, municipal solid waste generation, and sewage treatment plants. For the Netherlands, these strategies could reduce emissions by at least 30% in 2010 relative to business as usual. Further reductions could be achieved by reducing the magnitude of activities, such as vehicle use. Describes several promising technological options that might exist after the year 2000.

Item #d98feb39

"Incentive Aspects of Joint Implementation of Greenhouse Gas Reduction," A. Michaelowa (Hamburg Inst. for Econ. Res. (HWWA), Neuer Jungfernstieg 21, 20347 Hamburg, Ger.),Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1(1), 95-108, 1996.

Examines mechanisms needed to induce private investments in joint implementation projects, such as tax concessions, subsidies, additional emissions rights under a trading program, or relaxation of regulations. Finds that tax concessions and subsidies are more efficient than other instruments.

Item #d98feb40

"Management Options to Conserve and Sequester Carbon in the Agricultural Sector of the Former Soviet Union," T.P. Kolchugina (Dept. Civil/Environ. Eng., Apperson Hall 107, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), T.S. Vinson,Mitigation & Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1(2), 197-218, 1996.

Evaluates current C pools and fluxes of the FSU; identifies management strategies to conserve and sequester C; and examines the impacts of expected trends in land use and management over the next 20-50 years. Promising strategies include no-till planting, agroforestry, and increasing perennial grasses in crop rotations.

Item #d98feb41

"Potentials for Reductions of Carbon Dioxide Emissions of the Industrial Sector in Transitional Economies — A Case Study of Implementation of Absorption Chiller and Co-generation," J. Remec (Faculty Mechanical Eng., Univ. Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, Ljubljana, 1000 Slovenia), N. Dolsak,World Resource Review, 8(4), 467-480, Dec. 1996.

Surveys existing models of adoption of technology by businesses, then examines the impact of macro-economic and institutional factors and highlights policy instruments that could facilitate faster diffusion of technologies.

Item #d98feb42

"Microalgal Technology for Remediation of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas: A Technoeconomic Perspective," K.L. Kadam (Biotechnol. Ctr. for Fuels & Chemicals, Natl. Renewable Energy Lab., 1617 Cole Blvd., Golden CO 80401), J.J. Sheehan, World Resource Review, 8(4), 493-504, Dec. 1996.

Develops a technical-economic model to evaluates the trapping of CO2 by microalgae in ponds. Results look promising and indicate directions for further development and deployment.

Item #d98feb43

"Global Warming and Developing Countries—The Possibility of a Solution by Accelerating Development," Y. Murota (Shonan Econometrics Inc., 3-23-1 Kataseyama, Fujisawa, Kanagawa 251, Japan), K. Ito,Energy Policy, 24(12), 1061-1077, Dec. 1966.

Shows how, contrary to current opinion, rapid development of non-industrialized countries might bring about a long-term solution to the global warming problem. This conclusion is based on a model of development which calculates by region the world's economic growth, population growth, energy supply and demand, CO2 emissions and other factors, through the end of the next century. Steps necessary to realize this scenario include accelerating development in developing countries, expediting their shift to renewable energy through carbon taxes, and transferring energy saving technologies from developed to developing countries.

Item #d98feb44

"Two Decades of Carbon Flux from Forests of the Pacific Northwest — Estimates from a New Modeling Strategy," W.B. Cohen (Forestry Sci. Lab., USDA Forest Serv., 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis OR 97331), M.E. Harmon et al.,BioScience, 46(11), 836-843, Nov. 1996.

Describes a strategy being developed for estimating regional carbon fluxes using remotely sensed and spatial biogeoclimatic data, and a pilot study in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. that demonstrates its value.

Item #d98feb45

"Joint Implementation: Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gas Offsets," N.J. Cutright (Environ. Process, Wisconsin Electric Power Co., 333 W. Everett St., Milwaukee WI 53203),Environ. Mgmt., 20(6), 913-918, Nov.-Dec. 1996.

Describes a pilot joint implementation project supported by Wisconsin Electric which involves forest preservation and management in Belize. It will sequester more than five million tons of CO2 over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sufficient after 10 years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

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