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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d97jul34

"HCFCs and HFCs: Halocarbon Replacements for CFCs," P. Midgley (M&D Consulting, Ludwigstr. 49, Leinfelden Musberg D-70771, Ger.), Atmos. Environ., 31(7), 1095-1096, Apr. 1997.

Commentary on the success of the Montreal Protocol and the role the two major CFC substitutes have played in that success. Concerns about the global warming effects or breakdown products of HCFCs and HFCs are far outweighed by what would have happened if CFCs had not been cut back.

Item #d97jul35

"Estimated National Releases to the Atmosphere of Chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) During 1990," P.M. Midgley, A. McCulloch (ICI Chemicals Ltd., Runcorn WA1 4QF, UK), Atmos. Environ., 31(6), 809-811, Mar. 1997.

Estimates for this most widely used substitute for CFCs are made using the calculated emissions of CFC-12 as a surrogate distribution function. Releases so calculated match the sparse published data in most cases.

Item #d97jul36

"Atmospheric Chemical Reactivity and Ozone-Forming Potentials of Potential CFC Replacements," G.D. Hayman (Natl. Environ. Technol. Ctr., AEA Technol., E5 Culham, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB, UK; e-mail:, R.G. Derwent, Environ. Sci. & Technol., 31(2), 327-336, Feb. 1997.

Addresses one of the environmental impact concerns relating to HCFCs and HFCs before widespread production of them commences: their possible contribution to ground-level photochemical ozone production. Calculations with a photochemical trajectory model show that their contribution is probably low. However, our ability to weigh the relative importance of this impact, along with their impacts on stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change, is not sufficiently developed to assess with any degree of certainty the benefits or harm that may result from switching to the use of HCFCs and HFCs.

Item #d97jul37

"GAGE/AGAGE Measurements Indicating Reductions in Global Emissions of CCl3F [CFC-11] and CCl2F2 [CFC-12] in 1992-1994," D.M. Cunnold (Sch. Earth & Atmos. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), R.F. Weiss et al., J. Geophys. Res., 102(D1), 1259-1269, Jan. 20, 1997.

Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment/Advanced GAGE observations of CFC-11 indicate that its global concentrations peaked in 1993 and decayed slightly in 1994; CFC-12 concentrations increased about 7 ppt in both 1993 and 1994. This suggests that world emissions in these two years were smaller than industry production figures would indicate and have decreased faster than expected under the Montreal Protocol. The combined atmospheric loading of these two compounds plus four other common chlorinated compounds reached a maximum in 1992.

Item #d97jul38

"Replacement of Chlorofluorocarbons at the DOE Gaseous Diffusion Plants: An Assessment of Global Impacts," M.L. Socolof (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., POB 2008, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.E. Saylor, L.N. McCold, Environ. Impact. Assess. Rev., 17(1), 39-51, Jan. 1997.

For Department of Energy uranium enrichment plants, analyzes replacement of CFC-114 coolant with perfluorocarbons, which are less damaging to stratospheric ozone but large contributors to global warming. The overall contributions of coolant releases to ozone depletion and global warming were quantified by parameters which are shown can be used as surrogates for predicting global impacts to all resources. They can provide a framework for assessing environmental impacts of a permanent coolant replacement, eliminating the need for subsequent resource-specific analyses.

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