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Item #d96may61

"Effect of Soil Factors on Methyl Bromide Volatilization After Soil Application," J. Gan (Dept. Soil & Environ. Sci., Univ. California, Riverside CA 92521), S.R. Yates et al., Environ. Sci. & Technol., 30(5), 1629-1636, May 1996.

Describes experiments determining how various soil factors (such as soil type, soil water content, and bulk density) affect the volatilization of methyl bromide from soil. Volatilization was significantly less in organic matter-rich soil and in moist and dense soils, implying that the volatilization rate may have wide regional and local variations, even within the same field. To minimize volatilization, methyl bromide should be injected at great depths in moist soil under suitable tarps.

Item #d96may62

"Methyl Bromide Emissions from a Covered Field: I. Experimental Conditions and Degradation in Soil," S.R. Yates (Soil Phys. Unit, Salinity Lab., USDA-ARS, 450 Big Springs Rd., Riverside CA 92507), J. Gan et al., J. Environ. Qual., 25(1), 184-192, Jan.-Feb. 1996.

". . .II. Volatilization," S.R. Yates, F.F. Ernst et al., ibid., 192-202.

Describes results from the experiments of the previous paper, in somewhat more detail. High emissions result when methyl bromide is applied at shallow soil depths and the soil covered with a relatively permeable polyethylene tarp, which is currently a common practice. Research is urgently needed to develop methods for containing methyl bromide in soils at lower rates of application and for longer times, so that soil degradation can occur. If such improved procedures can be found, methyl bromide emissions to the atmosphere could be significantly lowered without any loss in pest control.

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