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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d96jun20

Special Issue: Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Mitigation for Countries with Economies in Transition, Environ. Mgmt., 20(Suppl. 1), 1996 (pub. by Springer-Verlag). Contains 12 papers based on presentations at a June 1995 workshop held in Warsaw, Poland, by the U.S. Country Studies Program, the OECD, and the U.S. EPA. The first article listed below is a workshop summary.

"Methods for Assessing Greenhouse Mitigation for Countries with Economies in Transition: Summary of Workshop Presentations and Discussions," M. Sadowski (Clim. Protection Ctr., Warszawa, Poland), S. Meyers et al. (Guest Editors), S3-S14.

"Bulgaria Country Study to Address Climate Change Mitigation," K. Simeonova, S15-S26.

"Alternative Energy Balances for Bulgaria to Mitigate Climate Change," C. Christov, S27-S30.

"Modeling Impacts of Policy Measures in the Polish Country Study," H. Gaj, S31-S36.

"Structural and Technological Changes of Greenhouse Gas Emissions During the Transition Period in Polish Industry," S. Pasierb, K. Niedziela, J. Wojtulewicz, S37-S46.

"Greenhouse Gas Emissions Projections and Mitigation Options for the Czech Republic, 1990-2010," M. Tichy, S47-S56.

"Estimating the Potential of Greenhouse Mitigation in Kazakhstan," E. Monacrovich, O. Pilifosova et al., S57-S64.

"Netherlands Policy-Making Process on Scenarios and Projections for Greenhouse Gas Emissions," H. Merkus, W. Iestra, S65-S74.

"The United Kingdom's Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options," J. Penman, S75-S82.

"An Investigation of Renewable Resources and Renewable Technology Applications in Bulgaria," P. Ivanov, St. Lingova et al., S83-S94.

"Potential of Solar Domestic Hot Water Systems in Rural Areas for Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in Poland," P. Skowronski, G. Wisniewski, S95-S100.

"Calculation of CO2 Net Sinks/Emissions in Russian Forests and Assessment of Mitigation Options," A.O. Kokorin, A.L. Lelyakin et al., S101-S110.

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in the Forest Sector of Russia: National and Project Level Assessments," T.S. Vinson, T.P. Kolchugina, K.A. Andrasko, S111 ff.

Item #d96jun21

"Potential Consequences of the Clean Coal Program for Air and Waste Issues," T.J. Blasing (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.L. Miller, L.N. McCold, J. Air & Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 46, 517-529, June 1996.

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program initially focused on the precursors of acid precipitation, but clean coal technologies may also produce less CO2. This analysis shows that the repowering approach appears to be the most beneficial from an environmental standpoint, and if widely accepted could contribute to U.S. and global reductions in CO2, SO2, NOx, and solid waste. In contrast, retrofit technologies effectively reduce emissions of SO2 and NOx, but scarcely affect CO2.

Item #d96jun22

Two articles from Energy Policy, 24(3), Mar. 1996:

"A Free Lunch at Higher CAFE? A Review of Economic, Environmental and Social Benefits," H. Dowlatabadi (Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213), L.B. Lave, A.G. Russell, 253-264. Pressure has been increasing to raise the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standard for automobiles. This analysis finds that fuel savings from increasing CAFE are subject to diminishing returns, with little or no effect on urban air pollution, and a less than proportional reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Given current technology, substantial increases in CAFE have substantial costs, including reduced safety, and do not appear to offer significant benefits as contended.

"The CO2 Mitigation Options for the Electric Sector. A Case Study of Taiwan," H. Bai (Inst. Environ. Eng., Natl. Chiao-Tung Univ., 75 Po-Ai St., Hsin-Chu, Taiwan), J.-H. Wei, 221-228. Uses a linear programming model to evaluate the effectiveness of possible options for Taiwan, including alternative fuels, energy conservation, reduced peak production, improved electric efficiency and CO2 capture. Energy conservation can significantly reduce CO2 emissions only when combined with reduced peak production and improved electric efficiency. CO2 capture and disposal can be an effective and economic option.

Item #d96jun23

"Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies: Preliminary Results from the U.S. Country Studies Program," R.K. Dixon (U.S. Country Studies Prog., PO-63, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington DC 20585), J.A. Sathaye et al., Ambio, 25(1), 26-32, Feb. 1996.

Describes the U.S. contributions of financial and technical support aimed at helping developing and transition countries meet their future obligations to report greenhouse gas emissions inventories and response (mitigation) options. Preliminary assessments suggest that greenhouse gas stabilization strategies should focus on fossil fuel combustion and carbon sequestration through forest management. In selected countries, mitigation of methane sources is also warranted. Strengthening human and institutional capacity to cope with global climate change issues will provide developing and transition countries with a sustained basis for meeting the goals of the climate convention.

Item #d96jun24

"An Inventory-Based Procedure to Estimate Economic Costs of Forest Management on a Regional Scale to Conserve and Sequester Atmospheric Carbon," D.K. Lewis (Dept. Forestry, Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater OK 74078), D.P. Turner, J.K. Winjum, Ecol. Econ., 16(1), 35-49, Jan. 1996.

Because forests are carbon pools and also affect the flux of CO2 to the atmosphere, estimates of the costs of forest management to mitigate climate change must integrate biological, social and economic considerations, and consider the distributional impacts of forest policy alternatives. An estimation procedure is presented and applied to four policy scenarios for the U.S.

Item #d96jun25

"Full Fuel Cycle Carbon Balances of Bioenergy and Forestry Options," B. Schlamadinger (Joanneum Res., Elisabethstr. 11, A-8010 Graz, Austria), G. Marland, Energy Conversion Mgmt., 37(6-8), 813-818, 1996.

Compares conventional forest management with short-rotation forestry in terms of carbon balance under biomass utilization. Important parameters for the net reduction of carbon emissions are the site occupancy prior to the project, growth rate, efficiency of biomass conversion into energy and non-energy products, and carbon emission rates and efficiencies of displaced fossil fuels. The carbon balance outcome can differ considerably depending on the analysis period (20, 50 or 100 years).

Item #d96jun26

"Biomass Fuels and Forest Management Strategies: How Do We Calculate the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefits?" G. Marland (Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), G. Schlamadinger, Energy, 20(11), 1131-1140, 1995.

Used a simple model of carbon flows to show that a full fuel-cycle analysis of the benefits of biomass energy systems must take into account the by-products produced along with the biofuel, the temporal variability of carbon stocks, and fluxes associated with the standing biomass and its harvest. The analysis presents interesting accounting challenges to establish a clearly understood balance of emission credits and debits among parties exchanging biofuels and wood products.

Item #d96jun27

"Sequestering Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide by Increasing Ocean Alkalinity," H.S. Kheshgi (Corporate Res. Labs., Exxon Res. & Eng. Co., Annandale NJ 08801), ibid., 20(9), 915-922, Sep. 1995.

Presents a preliminary analysis of the geoengineering option of sequestering atmospheric CO2 by increasing ocean alkalinity, for example by dissolving soda ash or limestone. The approach appears to be limited only by the availability of energy. Like all geoengineering schemes, this one should be viewed as a potential future option subject to further evaluation as knowledge about potential side effects improves.

Item #d96jun28

"Modeling Clathrate Hydrate Formation During Carbon Dioxide Injection into the Ocean," G.D. Holder, A.V. Cugini, R.P. Warzinski (US DOE, Energy Technol. Ctr., Pittsburgh PA 15236), Environ. Sci. & Technol., 29(1), 276-278, Jan. 1995.

Predicts the effect of the formation of ice-like CO2 clathrate hydrate on the fate of CO2 droplets discharged into the ocean under hydrate-forming conditions, using new information on hydrate growth rates. If not properly understood and controlled, hydrate formation can severely limit the dissolution process or permit CO2 to rise to shallow depths, defeating the objectives of deep-ocean injection.

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