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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d96apr5

Three articles from Energy Policy, 24(3), Mar. 1996:

"Energy Conservation in the Russian Manufacturing Industry—Potentials and Obstacles," J.W. Fromme (DIC Deutche Industrie Consult GmbH, Parsevalstr. 9b, 40468 Düsseldorf, Ger.), 245-252. Detailed analysis of a recently privatized plant in the Urals shows that substantial energy conservation could be achieved by local means at little or no cost. A general lack of awareness stemming from traditional thinking and structures, compounded by a lack of financing, constitutes some of the most important obstacles for energy conservation in Russia.

"The Lifetime Pollution Implications of Various Types of Electricity Generation. An Input-Output Analysis," J.L.R. Proops (Environ. Policy Unit., Keele Univ., Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK), P.W. Gay et al., 229-237. Examines the relative impacts of eight forms of electricity generation on the emissions of three air pollutants (CO2, SO2 and NOx) throughout the UK economy, through the entire generating station lifetime (construction, operation and decommissioning). Each form of generation shows substantial lifecycle emission reductions for all pollutants compared with "old coal" technology, mostly in the operating phase.

"The Sixteenth World Energy Congress of the World Energy Council, . .Tokyo, Japan, 8-13 October 1995," H. Khatib (Amman, Jordan) 275-277. A conference report by the World Energy Council's Honorary Vice Chairman. Major recommendations are to phase out all energy subsidies, and to shift attention to long-term global energy needs.

Item #d96apr6

Special Issue. "Valuing the Benefits of Renewables," S. Awerbuch (50 Shelley Dr., Nashua NH 03062), Guest Editor, Energy Policy, 24(2), Feb. 1996. Contains the following titles:

"Editor's Introduction. The Problem of Valuing New Energy Technologies"

"Valuing the Flexibility of Alternative Sources of Power Generation"

"Distributed Generation. An Alternative to Electric Utility Investments in System Capacity"

"Integrating Financial Theory and Methods in Electricity Resource Planning"

"Monte Carlo Simulation Techniques and Electric Utility Resource Decisions"

"Informing Decision Makers and Identifying Niche Opportunities for Windpower. . ."

"Evaluating the Economics of Photovoltaics in a Demand-Side Management Role"

"A Marketing Orientation is the Key to a Sustainable Energy Future"

"Capital Budgeting, Technological Innovation and the Emerging Competitive Environment of the Electric Power Industry"

Item #d96apr7

"Solar Power and Climate Change Policy in Developing Countries," T.E. Drennen (Prog. on Ethics & Public Life, Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), J.D. Erickson, D. Chapman, ibid., 24(1), 9-16, Jan. 1996.

Examines the economic competitiveness of photovoltaic (PV) systems and concludes that even after including externality costs, without significant technological breakthroughs, unsubsidized, widespread adoption of this technology is unlikely in the near future. If the goal of PV transfer programs is to limit greenhouse gas emissions, there are larger and cheaper opportunities in industrialized countries.

Item #d96apr8

"Energy Inequities Within Developing Countries: An Important Concern in the Global Environmental Debate," T.A. Siddiqi (Prog. on Environment, East-West Ctr., 1777 East-West Rd., Honolulu HI 96848), Global Environ. Change, 5(5), 447-454, Dec. 1995.

In many parts of the world, the energy disparities within countries are as large as those between developing and industrialized countrie—inequities that need to be addressed much more explicitly. Describes differences in energy use in South Asia between low income and middle class households for cooking, transportation and electricity. These have implications in terms of the impact of each group on the global environment, as well as on the local environment.

Item #d96apr9

Two items in Energy Policy, 23(2), Dec. 1995:

"Biomass Energy in North American Policies," D.L. Klass (Entech Intl., 25543 W. Scott Rd., Barrington IL 60010), 1035-1048. Examines the role of biomass energy in the federal government policies of Canada, Mexico and the U.S. on the development and use of biomass energy. There are major barriers that must be overcome if biomass is to displace large amounts of fossil fuels, including development of large-scale systems that can supply biomass energy and biofuels at competitive prices, and nationwide distribution systems that simplify consumer access. Otherwise, biomass energy use will continue to rely on governmental subsidies and will be limited to niche markets.

"Energy and Environment Policy Integration: The Case of Energy Conservation Policies and Technologies in Japan," Y. Fukasaku (2 Ave. Romand, F-92210 St.-Cloud, France), 1063-1076. Among OECD countries, Japan has achieved one of the lowest energy intensities and has reduced CO2 and other emissions associated with energy use while maintaining a relatively high rate of economic growth. This study shows that in both domains, considerable importance was attached to the enhancement of energy conservation by both industry and government. Recent responses to global environmental issues show that Japanese technologies will continue to be "environmentally competitive."

Item #d96apr10

Two items in Intl. J. Hydrogen Energy, 20(12), Dec. 1995:

"Toward Sustainable Economic Growth: The Age of Energy Gases," R.A. Hefner III (GHK Co., 6305 Waterford Blvd., S. 470, Oklahoma City OK 73118), 945-948. To sustain economic growth, energy systems must increase economic productivity and competitiveness, put more people to work, and reduce environmental degradation. At the end of the 20th century, state-of-the-art energy systems are in transition from liquid oil to (gaseous) methane/natural gas. This new "Age of Energy Gases" will end with totally clean hydrogen, using basically the same infrastructure as natural gas.

"Reformulated Gasoline: Cleaner Air on the Road to Nowhere," J.S. Cannon (INFORM Inc., 120 Wall St., New York NY 10005), 987-994. U.S. legislation that takes effect in 1995 requiring the sale of cleaner reformulated gasoline in heavily polluted areas fails to take into account the world's dwindling reserves of oil, the eroding economics of using oil, and the political and military costs of maintaining access to non-domestic supplies. In contrast, natural gas offers greater emission reductions than reformulated gasoline, at lower fuel costs and with greater domestic supply and energy security. In the long term, the expansion of an infrastructure that would support natural gas vehicles could facilitate transition to hydrogen which, when produced from renewable sources, could become the optimum fuel for a sustainable energy economy.

Item #d96apr11

Several items in The Electricity Journal, 8(10), Dec. 1995. (The Electricity Journal, 1501 Western Ave., S. 100, Seattle WA 98101.)

"The Energy Efficiency Challenge: Save the Baby, Throw out the Bathwater," J.H. Chanberlin (Barakat & Chamberlin Inc.), P. Herman, 38-47. In the more competitive, restructured industry that is emerging, electricity providers will need to build on what we have learned about demand-side management in the past 15 years, focusing on providing information and technical services and on individual customer needs.

"Ranking Electric Generating Technologies with External Costs," A.M. Freeman III (Econ. Dept., Bowdoin Coll., Maine), R.D. Rowe, 48-53. A comprehensive study was performed in New York State to rank environmental externality costs associated with electricity supply options. Early in the study it was determined that there was insufficient information to establish a defensible dollar value for damage from CO2 emissions.

"Technology as an Enabling Force in the Global Restructuring of the Electric Power Industry," 54-77. Consists of contributions from five panelists at the Aspen Institute's 1995 Summer Program on Energy, the Environment and the Economy.

Item #d96apr12

"The Option Value of Renewable Energy. The Case of Climate Change," D. Schimmelpfennig (Econ. Res. Service, Div. Natural Resour. & Environ., 1301 New York Ave. NW, Rm. 408, Washington DC 20005), Energy Economics, 17(4), 311-317, Oct. 1995.

Decision makers receive mixed signals from the investment literature on when it is appropriate to develop renewable energy technology substitutes for fossil fuels. Under certain assumptions, renewable energy alternatives are more attractive than they appear on the basis of a net present value criterion that ignores "option value." Option value represents the value of flexibility to use or discard new technologies. Applies a model to analyze the optimum investment time with respect to the climate treaty.

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