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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95nov82

Economic Approaches to Cost Estimates for the Control of Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Z-.X. Zhang, H. Folmer, 28 pp., June 1995. Available from the first author at Dept. General Econ., Landbouwuniversitat Wageningen, POB 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth. (fax: 31 317 484763).

Highlights in a general manner the relative strengths and weaknesses of the different economic approaches that have been used: ad hoc, dynamic optimization, computable general equilibrium, and hybrid (top-down and bottom-up models). Illustrates how the different approaches can shed light on different questions regarding emission control costs.

Item #d95nov83

Independent NGO Evaluations of National Plans for Climate Change Mitigation: Central and Eastern Europe, Feb. 1995. Climate Network Europe, 44 rue du Taciturne, 1040 Brussels, Belg. (tel: 32 2 231 0180; fax: 32 2 230 5713; e-mail:

Item #d95nov84

Energy Technologies to Reduce CO2 Emissions in Europe: Prospects, Competition, Synergy, Sep. 1995, $79. (OECD)

Based on a 1994 workshop held in the Netherlands. Explores a wide range of energy technologies; provides projections to 2020 for several of them.

Item #d95nov85

Industrial Demand Side Management: A Status Report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, 1995. For sale by NTIS.

DSM programs can potentially save up to a quarter of the energy used by industry, with motors and lighting being the major sources of savings. Benefits to participating companies include lower utility bills, process improvements, waste reduction and good public relations. Benefits to utilities include load retention and load management. Barriers to widespread implementation include a perception among some companies that DSM programs may increase their utility bills and benefit their competitors.

Item #d95nov86

The Costs of Carbon Sequestration: A Revealed Preference Approach, R. Stavins, Sep. 1995. Environ. & Natural Resour. Prog., Harvard Univ., 79 JFK St., Cambridge MA 02138 (tel: 617 495 1390; fax: 617 495 1635).

Concludes that the costs of preventing deforestation are significantly lower than the costs of reforestation in the same region. Carbon sequestration efforts should be focused in areas of relatively high deforestation, such as the tropics, which typically provide more efficient carbon storage than temperate forests. Contrary to previous analyses, this one uses information about the landowner's behavior, such cocnern over quality of life or the desire to remain in farming.

Item #d95nov87

Carbon Sequestration by Plantation Forests (Calculations Revised as of June 1995), New Zealand Forestry Res. Inst., 1995. Ministry of Forestry, POB 1610, Wellington, N.Z. (tel: 64 4 472 1569; fax: 64 4 472 2314).

By the year 2000, New Zealand should be close to its target of stabilizing net emissions at 1990 levels, taking into account the use of forests as carbon sinks. Projected carbon absorption by 2000 is down by 13% over earlier projections, but by 2010 New Zealand's forests will be absorbing an amount of CO2 equal to the country's emissions.

Item #d95nov88

Interim Report on Climate Change Studies (DOE/PO-0032), C. Ramos-Mañé, R. Benioff, Eds., 114 pp., Mar. 1995. Contact U.S. Country Studies Mgmt. Team, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington DC 20585 (tel: 202 426 1628; fax: 202 426 1540; e-mail:

Documents significant achievements made by 21 of the 55 countries that are conducting climate change country studies with support from the U.S. Country Studies Program, in preparation for submitting national reports in fulfillment of the requirements of the climate convention. The 15 papers discuss inventories of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, assessments of climate change vulnerability and adaptive responses, and evaluations of mitigation options to reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases. Papers were contributed by Bolivia, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, Malawi, Mexico, Mongolia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, and seven Central American countries working as a group.

Item #d95nov89

Transportation, Energy, and the Environment: Balancing Goals and Identifying Policies, Aug. 1995, $200. Consumer Energy Council of America Res. Foundation (CECA/RF), 2000 L St. NW, S. 802, Washington DC 20036 (tel: 202 659 0404; fax: 202 659 0407).

Results from a year-long consensus-building project involving industry representatives, environmental and consumer groups, and federal, state and local transportation agencies. Carbon emissions will increase over the next 20 years unless substantial policy changes are made. Examples are peak-load pricing of trips, and fuel taxation that reflects the total social cost of energy consumption. Policies should rely on market mechanisms whenever possible, although if market mechanisms are inadequate, swift government action is essential.

Item #d95nov90

Climate Change: Implications for Designation and Management of Protected Areas, Aug. 1995. Contact Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF), European Policy Off., Brussels (tel: 32 2 347 3030), or WWF headquarters, CH-1196 Gland, Switz. (tel: 44 22 364 91 11).

Submitted to the European Commission to improve the understanding, development and implementation of means for increasing ecosystem resilience to climate change impacts.

Item #d95nov91

China: Issues and Options in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control, Mar. 1995. Available from World Bank Industry & Energy Div., 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433 (tel: 202 473 1978; fax: 202 477 1978).

Report of a two-year study conducted by a team from the National Environmental Protection Agency and the State Planning Commission of China, the World Bank, and the U.N. Development Program. Rapid economic growth in China could lead to a three-fold increase in its greenhouse gas emissions between 1990 and 2020, but implementation of an array of mitigation options could cut this increase in half. Reviews a range of options, paying particular attention to no regrets actions, those whose benefits other than greenhouse gas mitigation exceed project costs. Recommends the continuation and expansion of economic reforms, accelerated implementation of no-regrets projects over the short to medium term, and development of less carbon-intensive energy technologies over the long term.

Item #d95nov92

IKARUS: Instruments for Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies, Fed. Ministry of Education, Sci., Res. & Technol., 74 pp., 1995. Available from Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Programmgruppe TFF, D-52425 Jülich, Ger. (tel: 49 2461 613322; fax: 49 2461 612496).

Describes Germany's IKARUS project for developing tools for analyzing national greenhouse gas reduction strategies.

Item #d95nov93

Joint Implementation of Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Consideration of Fiscal and Regulatory Incentives, A. Michaelowa, 166 pp., 1995, DM20. Institute for Econ. Res., Neuer Jungfernsteig, D-20347 Hamburg, Ger. (tel: 49 40 3562479; fax: 49 40 351900).

Reviews joint implementation and the need for complementary fiscal or regulatory measures.

Item #d95nov94

Policy Dialogue Advisory Committee to Assist in the Development of Measures to Significantly Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Personal Motor Vehicles: Interim Report to the President, 15 pp., Mar. 1995. Prepared by RESOLVE, Inc., 2828 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, Washington, D.C. Available on the Internet at http:\\, or through the Greenhouse Gas Car Dialogue on EPA's Technology Transfer Network Bulletin Board (919 541 5742).

Documents the progress to date of the committee, which has been meeting since Sep. 1994 to contribute to the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. Its goal is to develop consensus on three sets of policies that would, if adopted, most cost-effectively return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the years 2005, 2015, or 2025, with no increase thereafter. The committee's evaluation will be assisted by federal government economic analysts.

Item #d95nov95

Energy Efficiency, Economic Development and Reduced Emissions: An Action Plan for Minnesota, June 1995. Summary, 26 pp.; full report, 120 pp. Available from Ctr. for Energy & Environ.

Presents a comprehensive guide to the most important and promising reduction strategies for the state, based on a corresponding emission analysis (listed in Reports/ ENergy-Emission Analyses, this issue--Nov. 1995). Of the 61 strategies utilizing market incentives, regulatory changes, and education to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, 19 measures are recommended to policy makers as priority action strategies. Unlike most energy plans, this one focuses on the economic benefits of the recommended actions and views the environmental benefits as a direct outcome of greater efficiency.

Item #d95nov96

Farming for a Better Environment, Mar. 1995, $15. Soil & Water Conserv. Soc., 7515 NE Ankeny Rd., Ankeny IA 50021 (tel: 515 289 2331; fax: 515 289 1227).

A chapter on soil carbon states that intensive tillage has led to losses of soil carbon ranging from 30-50%. However, conservation tillage, currently used on more than 35% of all planted acres in the U.S., can reduce the carbon emissions from soils and may actually turn them into sinks. Another chapter illustrates the fuel conservation benefits of conservation versus conventional tillage.

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