February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 6, JUNE 1995
IMPACTS OF CO2
"A Field Study of
the Effects of Elevated CO2 on Carbon Assimilation, Stomatal
Conductance and Leaf and Branch Growth of Pinus taeda Trees," R.O.
Teskey (Warnell Sch. For. Resour., Univ. Georgia, Athens GA 30602), Plant,
Cell & Environ., 18(5), 565-573, May 1995.
A study of loblolly pines, that applied CO2 treatments in branch
chambers, suggests that the growth potential of forests on many sites may be
enhanced by global increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration.
Exchange and Nitrogen Dynamics of N2-Fixing, Field-Grown
Alnus glutinosa Under Elevated Atmospheric CO2," C.S.
Vogel (Dept. Plant Biol., Ohio State Univ., 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus OH 43210),
Global Change Biol., 1(1), 55-61, Feb. 1995.
Assesses the seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic capacity and leaf N content
for doubled CO2, using black alder seedlings grown in open-top
chambers in a low N soil. N2-fixing trees may be able to maintain high net CO2
assimilation with minimal negative adjustment of photosynthetic capacity.
"Air Quality and
Its Possible Impacts on the Terrestrial Ecosystems of the North American Great
Plains: An Overview," S.V. Krupa (Dept. Plant Pathol., Univ. Minnesota, St.
Paul MN 55108), A.H. Legge, Environ. Pollut.,
88(1), 1-11, 1995.
In almost all univariate studies, elevated CO2 concentrations
have produced increases in plant biomass. Future research must address whether
this stimulation will offset any adverse effects of elevated surface O3
"Responses in NPP
and Carbon Stores of the Northern Biomes to a CO2-Induced Climatic Change, as
Evaluated by the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM)," M.K.B. Ldeke
(Inst. Phys. Chem., J.W. Goethe Univ., Marie Curie Str. 11, 60439 Frankfurt am
Main, Ger.), S. Dnges et al., Tellus, 47B, 191-205, 1995.
For tripled CO2, the prediction for a pure climate effect is a 22% decrease
of net primary production (NPP), resulting in a 170 Gt carbon source.
Considering a CO2-induced enhancement of maximum photosynthesis, the pure
climate effect is more than compensated, with a NPP increase of 9% and a total
carbon sink of 50 Gt.
Effects of CO2 Concentration, Temperature and Nitrogen Supply on the
Photosynthesis and Composition of Winter Wheat Leaves," E. Delgado, . .D.W.
Lawlor (Biochem. & Physiol. Dept., Rothamsted Exp. Sta., Harpenden,
Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK), Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(11),
1205-1213, Nov. 1994.
Doubling CO2 results in slightly greater photosynthetic capacity and no
differences in carboxylation efficiency or apparent quantum yield. Nitrogen
supply and temperature have large effects on photosynthetic characteristics but
do not interact with elevated CO2. Nitrogen deficiency results in decreased
protein content, photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. A
temperature increase also reduces these components and shortens the effective
life of the leaves.
to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment with Emphasis on Roots and the
Rhizosphere," H.H. Rogers (ARS, USDA, POB 3439, Auburn AL 36831), G.B.
Runion, S.V. Krupa, Environ. Pollut., 83, 155-189, 1994.
Reviews past experiments on this neglected area of research, and integrates
existing data with that of a recent study to form a database. Uses the database
to arrive at a series of hypotheses that are priority targets for future
Climate Change on Grassland Production and Soil Carbon Worldwide," W.J.
Parton (Natural Resour. Ecol. Lab., Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins CO 80523),
. .and SCOPEGRAM Group Members (c/o D.O. Hall, Div. Life Sci., King's Coll.,
London W8 7AH, UK), Global Change Biology, 1(1), 13-22, Feb. 1995.
Modeling was done under two different climate change scenarios for 31
temperate and tropical grassland sites using the CENTURY model. The net effect
of climate change and CO2 was an increase in net primary production in mesic and
dry savanna regions, with little or no change in cold desert steppe or humid
tropical regions. Detecting statistically significant change in plant production
would require a 16% change because of high year-to-year variability in plant
production. Most predicted changes in plant production are less than 10%.
Climate Change: Are Passive Greenhouses a Valid Microcosm for Testing the
Biological Effects of Environmental Perturbations?" A.W. Kennedy (Marine
Lab., CSIRO, POB 20, North Beach, Perth WA 6020, Australia), Global Change
Biology, 1(1), 29-42, Feb. 1995.
Challenges the assumption of many studies that "passive"
greenhouses (those not requiring artificial power input to create treatment
conditions) provide a sufficiently controlled micro-environment for climate
change research. Greenhouses modify temperature, moisture, light, gas
composition, snow cover, and wind speed in a complex and interactive manner.
However, the relationship between modification and forecast conditions of
climate change is poor, and interpretation of biological responses and
extrapolation to predictive models is unreliable. Suggests amendments to the
methodology used in greenhouse experiments to overcome criticisms of artifact
and lack of rigor.
Potential Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ozone (O3), and
Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) Radiation on Plant Diseases," W.J. Manning (Dept.
Plant Pathol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), A. V. Tiedemann, Environ.
Pollut., 88(2), 219-245, 1995.
Very little is known about the actual impacts of climate change factors on
disease epidemiology in plants. Increased CO2 could increase plant canopy size
and density, with resulting greater biomass and higher microclimate relative
humidity. This could promote diseases such as rusts, mildews, leaf spots and
blights. Plants weakened through ozone could be more susceptible to necrotrophic
pathogens; ozone is unlikely to directly affect fungal pathogens. Increased UV-B
could lead to increased disease resistance through increased production of
flavinoids, but reduced net photosynthesis, and premature ripening and
senescence, could result in variable reactions to disease.
"The Effect of
Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Respiration of Growing and Mature Soybean
Leaves," J.A. Bunce (Beltsville Agric. Res. Ctr., 10300 Baltimore Ave.,
Beltsville MD 20705), Plant, Cell & Environ.,
18(5), 575-581, May 1995.
Responsiveness of Plants: A Possible Link to Phloem Loading," Ch. K?rner
(Inst. Bot., Univ. Basel, Sch?nbeinstr. 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), S.
Pelaez-Riedl, A.J.E. van Bel, ibid., 595-600.
"Effect of Carbon
Dioxide Concentration on Biomass Production and Partitioning in Betula
pubescens Ehrh. Seedlings at Different Ozone and Temperature Regimes,"
L.M. Mortensen (Dept. Hort. & Crop Sci., Agric. Univ., N-1342, ?s-NLH,
Norway), Environ. Pollut., 87(3), 337-343, 1995.
Analysis of the Increase in Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and Its
Relation to the Possible Existence of CO2 Fertilization on a Global
Scale," K. Okamoto (Tokyo Gakuen Univ., 1660, Hiregasaki, Nagareyama, Chiba
Pref., 270-01 Japan), S. Tanimoto, K. Okano, Tellus,
47B, 206-211, 1995.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations