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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95jul72

"A Model Simulation of Pinatubo Volcanic Aerosols in the Stratosphere," J. Zhao (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), R.P. Turco, O.B. Toon, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4), 7315-7328, Apr. 20, 1995.

Uses a one-dimensional, time-dependent model to study the chemical, microphysical and radiative properties of volcanic aerosols. The model includes gas-phase sulfur photochemistry, gas-to-particle conversion of sulfur, and microphysics of sulfate aerosols. The persistent aerosols can produce significant anomalies in the radiation field, with important climatic consequences. The large enhancement in aerosol surface area can result in measurable global stratospheric ozone depletion.

Item #d95jul73

"First Results from POAM II: The Dissipation of the 1993 Antarctic Ozone Hole," R.M. Bevilacqua (Naval Res. Lab., Code 7227, Washington DC 20375), K.W. Hoppel et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 909-912, Apr. 15, 1995.

Describes program POAM II (Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement), a space-borne instrument program that used the solar occultation technique to measure properties of the stratosphere and mesosphere. Data for 1993 show that the Antarctic ozone hole dissipates from the top downward, and support the hypothesis that the Antarctic vortex is an effective containment vessel.

Item #d95jul74

"Recent Trends in Ozone in the Upper Stratosphere: Implications for Chlorine Chemistry," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.H. Jackman, E.L. Fleming, ibid., 22(7), 843-846, Apr. 1, 1995.

Compares trends based on 15 years of satellite data with those based on model estimates. The satellite data suggest a decrease of 10-25% per decade in the annual amplitude of ozone at 2 mb between 40° and 60° in both hemispheres, with a relatively larger interannual variability in the Northern Hemisphere. These values are in general agreement with model predictions and provide additional support in favor of chlorine-induced changes in ozone in the upper stratosphere.

Item #d95jul75

"TOMS Total Ozone Trends in Potential Vorticity Coordinates," W.J. Randel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), F. Wu, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(6), 683-686, Mar. 15, 1995.

Remaps the TOMS data into potential vorticity coordinates and calculates trends, thereby characterizing ozone losses inside and outside the winter polar vortices. Large regions of ozone loss are seen outside of the vortex in both hemispheres. Midlatitude losses in the Northern Hemisphere during winter-spring do not seem to result solely from the transport of ozone-depleted air from inside to outside the vortex.

Item #d95jul76

"Evolution of Microwave Limb Sounder Ozone and the Polar Vortex During Winter," G.L. Manney (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), L. Froidevaux et al., J. Geophys. Res., 100(D2), 2953-2972, Feb. 20, 1995.

Describes the evolution of polar ozone for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994, and the Southern Hemisphere winters of 1992 and 1993. Interannual and interhemispheric variability in polar ozone evolution are closely related to differences in the polar vortex and to the frequency, duration and strength of stratospheric sudden warmings. Previous evidence has shown chemical ozone destruction in the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 NH winters; this study suggests some chemical destruction in late February and early March 1994.

Item #d95jul77

"Arctic Chlorine Monoxide Observations During Spring 1993 over Thule, Greenland, and Implications for Ozone Depletion," D.T. Shindell (Phys. Dept., State Univ. New York, Stony Brook NY 11794), J.M. Reeves et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), 25,697-25,704, Dec. 20, 1994.

Measurements of pressure-broadened molecular-emission spectra suggest that hemispheric dilution by ozone-poor air from within the Arctic vortex is unlikely to be sufficient to explain the historically extreme loss of midlatitude Northern Hemisphere ozone which began in 1992 and persisted throughout 1993.

Item #d95jul78

"The Chemical and Radiative Effects of the Mount Pinatubo Eruption," D.E. Kinnison (Lawrence-Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), K.E. Grant et al., ibid., 25,705-25,731.

Used a 2D, zonally averaged, chemical radiative transport model, integrated with time from before the eruption through December 1993, to compare the effects of heterogeneous chemical processing on sulfate aerosols with those of aerosol heating (modifying either circulation or temperature). Compares various scenarios with observations.

Item #d95jul79

"Further Studies on Possible Volcanic Signal to the Ozone Layer," C.S. Zerefos (Phys. Dept., C.B. 149, Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki 54006, Greece), K. Tourpali, A.F. Bais, ibid., 25,741-25,746.

Calculates the spatial and temporal distribution of monthly mean residuals of the global ozone field following the eruptions of El Chichon and Pinatubo, after having removed the components of known oscillations from the monthly mean total ozone records. The residuals include a possible volcanic signal whose amplitude agrees somewhat with model calculations. Results show no ozone deficiency over the Southern Hemisphere following El Chichon due to the prevailing winds in the lower stratosphere.

Item #d95jul80

"The 1991 WMO International Ozonesonde Intercomparison at Vanscoy, Canada," J.B. Kerr (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), H. Fast et al., Atmos.-Ocean, 32(4), 685-716, Dec. 1994.

The relative sensitivity to tropospheric ozone for different sonde types appears to have changed with time, and this should be considered when drawing conclusions regarding trends in tropospheric ozone.

Item #d95jul81

The following articles were previously summarized in GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE DIGEST under other categories.

Item #d95jul82

"Ozone Trends Deduced from Combined Nimbus 7 SBUV and NOAA 11 SBUV/2 Data," S.M. Hollandsworth (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.D. McPeters et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 905-908, Apr. 15, 1995.

Extends the Nimbus-7 SBUV measurements of global ozone (Nov. 1978-June 1990) through June 1994 using measurements from the NOAA-11 SBUV/2. In the tropical middle stratosphere and in the upper stratosphere at mid-latitudes, trends through June 1994 are 1.5-2% per decade less negative than through June 1990. In the lower stratosphere, trends are nearly 1.5% per decade more negative in the Southern Hemisphere tropical regions, but are relatively unchanged elsewhere.

Item #d95jul83

"Atmospheric Methyl Bromide (CH3Br) from Agricultural Soil Fumigations," K. Yagi (Natl. Inst. Agro-Environ. Sci., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), J. Williams et al., Science, 267(5206), 1979-1981, Mar. 31, 1995.

After seven days of field fumigation, 34% of the applied methyl bromide had escaped into the atmosphere. Comparison with an earlier experiment, in which the amount of escape was greater, showed that higher soil pH, organic content and moisture, and deeper, more uniform injection of methyl bromide may in combination reduce the escape.

Item #d95jul84

"Interhemispheric Differences in Polar Stratospheric HNO3, H2O, ClO, and O3," M.L. Santee (Jet Propulsion Lab., MS 183-701, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), W.G. Read et al., Science, 267(5199), 849-852, Feb. 10, 1995.

Measurements of these substances were obtained over complete annual cycles by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. Arctic O3 depletion was substantially smaller than in the Antarctic. A major factor currently limiting the formation of an Arctic ozone hole is lack of denitrification in the northern polar vortex. Future cooling of the lower stratosphere could lead to more intense denitrification there.

Item #d95jul85

"Ozone Profiles at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, During the Spring of 1993; Record Low Ozone Season," B.J. Johnson (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), T. Deshler, R. Zhao, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(3), 183-186, Feb. 1, 1995.

Total column ozone declined by 55% from an initial 275 Dobson Units on Aug. 30, to a minimum of 130 ± 7 DU on Oct. 2. Probable causes of this record low ozone concentration, based on balloon-borne observations at McMurdo Station include: the presence of Mt. Pinatubo aerosol; a colder than normal stratosphere over McMurdo; and a relatively stable polar vortex which delayed intrusion of high levels of ozone from outside its wall.

Item #d95jul86

"Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone: An Analysis of Ozonesonde Data," J.A. Logan (Dept. Earth & Planetary Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), 25,553-25,585, Dec. 20, 1994.

Presents an analysis of trends since 1970 and discusses the quality of the data and inconsistencies among data records.

Item #d95jul87

"Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials of CF3I," S. Solomon (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.B. Burkholder et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20,929-20,935, Oct. 20, 1994.

Laboratory data used with a photochemical model showed that the lifetime of CF3I in the sunlit atmosphere is less than a day. Any iodine that reaches the stratosphere will be effective for ozone destruction, but the short lifetime limits transport to the stratosphere. Neither the ozone depletion potential nor the global warming potential represents a significant obstacle to CF3I use as a halon replacement.

Item #d95jul88

"Secular Trend and Seasonal Variability of the Column Abundance of N2O Above the Jungfraujoch Station Determined from IR Solar Spectra," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège, Belgium), D.H. Ehhalt et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), 16,745-16,756, Aug. 20, 1994.

The exponential rate of increase for 1951-1984 was estimsted to be 0.23 ± 0.04% per yr (1Õ), substantially lower than for the 1984-1992 period. The preindustrial levels of N2O continued until 1951 with most of the increase in atmospheric N2O occurring thereafter.

Specialized Papers

Item #d95jul89

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(10), May 15, 1995:

"The Latitudinal Distribution (50° N-50° S) of NO2 and O3 in October/November 1990," K. Kreher (Inst. Umweltphys., Univ. Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg, Ger.), M. Fiedler et al., 1217-1220.

"Efficiency of Formation of CH3O in the Reaction of CH3O2 with ClO," P. Biggs (Phys. Chem. Lab., S. Parks Rd., Oxford OX1 3QZ, UK), C.E. Canosa-Mas et al., 1221-1224,

"Isentropic Mixing in the Arctic Stratosphere During the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 Winters," S.P. Dahlberg (Dept. Meteor., Texas A&M Univ., College Sta. TX 77843), K.P. Bowman, 1237-1240.

Item #d95jul90

"Ozone and NO2 Air-Mass Factors for Zenith-Sky Spectrometers: Intercomparison of Calculations with Different Radiative Transfer Models," A. Sarkissian (BAS, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), H.K. Roscoe et al., ibid., 22(9), 1113-1116, May 1, 1995.

Item #d95jul91

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4), Apr. 20, 1995:

"Impact of Aerosols and Clouds on the Troposphere and Stratosphere Radiation Field with Application to Twilight Photochemistry at 20 km," D.E. Anderson (Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel MD 20723), R. DeMajistre, S.A. Lloyd, 7135-7145.

"Solubility of HBr in Sulfuric Acid at Stratospheric Temperatures," L.R. Williams (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., Menlo Park CA 94025), D.M. Golden, D.L. Huestis, 7329-7335.

"The Annual Cycle of Stratospheric Water Vapor in a General Circulation Model," P.W. Mote (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 7363-7379.

Item #d95jul92

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), Apr. 15, 1995:

"Do Stratospheric Aerosol Droplets Freeze Above the Ice Frost Point?" T. Koop (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-55020 Mainz, Ger.), U.M. Biermann et al., 917-920.

"Nitric Acid Adsorption on Ice: A Preliminary Study," S.K. Laird (Rocky Mtn. Exp. Sta., USDA For. Serv., Fort Collins CO 80526), R.A. Sommerfeld, 921-923.

"Numerical Modeling of Tracer Transport Within and Out of the Lower Tropospheric Arctic Region," C.-Y.J. Kao (Los Alamos Natl. Lab., Los Alamos NM 87545), S. Barr et al., 941-944.

Item #d95jul93

Five items from ibid., 22(7), Apr. 1, 1995:

"UARS MLS Observations of Lower Stratospheric ClO in the 1992-93 and 1993-94 Arctic Winter Vortices," J.W. Waters (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), G.L. Manney et al., 823-826.

"The Reaction O(3P) + HOBr: Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constant and Importance of the Reaction as an HOBr Stratospheric Loss Process," F.L. Nesbitt (Lab. Extraterres. Phys., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.S. Monks et al., 827-830.

"In situ Measurements of BrO During AASE II," L.M. Avallone (Earth Sys. Sci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), D.W. Toohey et al., 831-834.

"Balloon-Borne Observations of Mid-Latitude Hydrofluoric Acid," B. Sen (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), G.C. Toon et al., 835-838.

"Filamentation and Layering of an Idealized Tracer by Observed Winds in the Lower Stratosphere," Y. Orsolini (Ctr. Natl. Recherches Météor., 31057 Toulouse Cedex, France), P. Simon, D. Cariolle, 839-842.

Item #d95jul94

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), Mar. 20, 1995:

"An Analysis of the Antarctic Halogen Occultation Experiment Trace Gas Observations," M.R. Schoeberl (Atmos. Chem. & Dynamics Branch, NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M. Luo, J.E. Rosenfield, 5159-5172.

"Origin of Condensation Nuclei in the Springtime Polar Stratosphere," J. Zhao (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), O.B. Toon, R.P. Turco, 5215-5227.

Item #d95jul95

"Stratospheric OClO Measurements as a Poor Quantitative Indicator of Chlorine Activation," J. Sessler (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), M.P. Chipperfield et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(6), 687-690, Mar. 15, 1995.

Item #d95jul96

"The Reaction of ClONO2 with Submicrometer Sulfuric Acid Aerosol," D.R. Hanson, E.R. Lovejoy (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), Science, 267(5202), Mar. 3, 1995.

Item #d95jul97

"Ground-Based Remote Sensing of the Decay of the Pinatubo Eruption Cloud at Three Northern Hemisphere Sites," H. Jäger (Fraunhofer Inst. Atmos. Environ. Res., D-82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Ger.), O. Uchino et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(5), 607-610, Mar. 1, 1995.

Item #d95jul98

Nine items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D2), Feb. 20, 1995:

"Meteor 3/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer Observations of the 1993 Ozone Hole," J.R. Herman (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.A. Newman et al., 2973-2983.

"Calibration and Postlaunch Performance of the Meteor 3/TOMS Instrument," G. Jaross (Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt MD 20770), A. Krueger et al., 2985-2995.

"Application of the Langley Plot Method to the Calibration of the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet Instrument on the Nimbus 7 Satellite," P.K. Bhartia (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), S. Taylor et al., 2997-3004.

"Ground-Based Microwave Monitoring of Middle Atmosphere Ozone: Comparison to Lidar and Stratospheric and Gas Experiment II Satellite Observations," J.J. Tsou (Lockheed Eng. & Sci. Co., Hampton VA 23681), B.J. Connor et al., 3005-3016.

"Toward Optimizing Brewer Zenith Sky Total Ozone Measurements at the Italian Stations of Rome and Ispra," N.J. Muthama (Meteor. Dept., Univ. Nairobi, POB 30197, Kenya), U. Scimia et al., 3017-3022.

"Stratospheric ClO Profiles from McMurdo Station, Antarctica, Spring 1992," L.K. Emmons (Dept. Atmos., Oceanic & Space Sci., Univ.. Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109), D.T. Shindell et al., 3049-3055.

"Estimates of Total Organic and Inorganic Chlorine in the Lower Stratosphere from in situ and Flask Measurements During AASE II," E.L Woodbridge (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.W. Elkins et al., 3057-3064.

"Smithsonian Stratospheric Far-Infrared Spectrometer and Data Reduction System," D.G. Johnson (Smithsonian Astrophys. Observ., 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138), K.W. Jucks et al., 3091-3106.

"On the Accuracy of TOVS Temperature Fields in an Arctic Case Study," F. Loechner (DLR, Inst. Atmos. Phys., POB 1116 Oberpfaffenhofen, 82230 Wessling, Ger.), R. Buell, 3201-3211.

Item #d95jul99

"Heterogeneous Chemistry of Bromine Species in Sulfuric Acid Under Stratospheric Conditions," D.R. Hanson (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(4), 385-388, Feb. 15, 1995.

Item #d95jul100

Three items from ibid., 22(3), Feb. 1, 1995:

"Effect of Stratospheric Aerosol on Ozone Profile from BUV Measurements," O. Torres (Hughes STX Corp., 7701 Greenbelt Rd., Greenbelt MD 20770), P.K. Bhartia, 235-238.

"Vapour Pressures of H2SO4/HNO3/HCl/HBr/H2O Solutions to Low Stratospheric Temperatures," B. Luo (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, D-55020 Mainz, Ger.), K.S. Carslaw et al., 247-250.

"Interaction of HCl with Crystalline and Amorphous Ice: Implications for the Mechanisms of Ice-Catalyzed Reactions," J.D. Graham (Dept. Chem., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), J.T. Roberts, 251-254.

Item #d95jul101

Five items from J. Geophys. Res., 100(D1), Jan. 20, 1995:

"Aerosol Effects and Corrections in the Halogen Occultation Experiment," M.E. Hervig (Dept. Atmos. Sci.. Univ. Wyoming, Laramie WY 82071), J.M. Russell III et al., 1067-1079.

"Evaluation of the Effects of Mount Pinatubo Aerosol on Differential Absorption Lidar Measurements of Stratospheric Ozone," W. Steinbrecht (Meteor. Observ., A. Schweiger Weg 10, D-82383 Hohenpeissenberg, Ger.), A.I. Carswell, 1215-1233.

"Numerical Simulation of Global Variations of Temperature, Ozone, and Trace Species in the Stratosphere," A.K. Smith (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 1253-1269.

"Calibration of the NOAA 11 Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV/2) Ozone Data Set from 1989 to 1993 Using In-Flight Calibration Data and SSBUV," E. Hilsenrath (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), R.P. Cebula et al., 1351-1366.

"Phase Equilibria of H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl Hydrates and the Composition of Polar Stratospheric Clouds," P.J. Wooldridge (Dept. Earth, Atmos. & Planetary Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), R. Zhang, M.J. Molina, 1389-1396.

Item #d95jul102

"Metastable Phases in Polar Stratospheric Aerosols," L.E. Fox (Div. Appl. Sci., Harvard Univ., 29 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), D.R. Worsnop et al., Science, 267(5196), 351-355, Jan. 20, 1995.

Item #d95jul103

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(1), Jan. 1, 1995:

"Seasonal Variation of Atmospheric Nitric Acid over the South Pole in 1992," R. Van Allen (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), X. Liu, F.J. Murcray, 49-52.

"Total Atmospheric Ozone Determined from Spectral Measurements of Direct Solar UV Irradiance," M. Huber (Inst. Med. Phys., Muellerstr. 44, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria), M. Blumthaler et al., 53-56.

"Spectral Analysis of Stratospheric Field Variables," Ø.E. Rögnvaldsson (Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark), G.G. Bjarnason, 61-64.

Item #d95jul104

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), Dec. 20, 1994:

"Infrared Optical Constants of H2O Ice, Amorphous Nitric Acid Solutions, and Nitric Acid Hydrates," O.B. Toon (Earth Sys. Sci., NASA-Ames, Moffett Field CA 94035), M.A. Tolbert et al., 25,631-25,654.

"Real Refractive Indices of Infrared-Characterized Nitric-Acid/Ice Films: Implications for Optical Measurements of Polar Stratospheric Clouds," A.M. Middlebrook (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), B.S. Berland et al., 25,655-25,666.

"Heterogeneous Reactions in a Stratospheric Box Model: A Sensitivity Study," M.Y. Danilin (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), J.C. McConnell, 25,681-25,696.

Item #d95jul105

"Correlation of Ozone Loss with the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols," T.J. McGee (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P. Newman et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(25), 2801-2804, Dec. 15, 1994.

Item #d95jul106

Five items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), Nov. 20, 1994:

"Kinetics of the Reactions of HBr with O3 and HO2: The Yield of HBr from HO2 + BrO," A. Mellouki (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.K. Talukdar, C.J. Howard, 22,949-22,954.

"Temperature Dependent Ultraviolet-Visible Absorption Cross Sections of NO2 and N2O4: Low-Temperature Measurements of the Equilibrium Constant for 2NO2 « N2O4," M.H. Harwood (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), R.L. Jones, 22,955-22,964.

"Effect of the HITRAN 92 Spectral Data on the Retrieval of NO2 Mixing Ratios from Nimbus 7 LIMS," E.E. Remsberg (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), P.P. Bhatt et al., 22,965-22,973.

"Accuracy of Total Ozone Retrieval from NOAA SBUV/2 Measurements: Impact of Instrument Performance," Z. Ahmad (Sci. & Data Sys., Inc., 16509 Copperstrip Lane, Silver Spring MD 20906), M.T. DeLand et al., 22,975-22,984.

"Three-Dimensional Model Interpretation of NOx Measurements from the Lower Stratosphere," I. Folkins (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), A.J. Weinheimer, 23,117-23,129.

Item #d95jul107

"Intercomparison Campaign of Vertical Ozone Profiles Including Electrochemical Sondes of ECC and Brewer-Mast Type and a Ground Based UV-Differential Absorption Lidar," M. Beekmann (CNRS, Univ. Paris 6-4, pl. Jussieu, Boite 102-75252, Paris Cedex 05, France), G. Ancellet et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 19(3), 259-288, Oct. 1994.

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