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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95jul34

Special issue: Tellus, 47B(1-2), Feb.-Apr. 1995; I. Fung, L. Merlivat, Eds. Single copies can be ordered from Munksgaard Intl. Publishers Ltd., 35 Nørrre Søgade, POB 2148, DK-1016 Copenhagen K, Denmark (tel: 45 33 12 70 30; fax: 45 33 12 93 87); 238 Main St., Cambridge MA 02142 (tel: 617 547 7665; fax: 617 547 7489).

Consists of the proceedings for the Fourth CO2 International Conference (Carqueiranne, France; Sep. 1993), sponsored by the World Meteor. Organization, the French Environment Ministry et al. About 150 oral and poster presentations were made, which document the growth of the studies of the carbon cycle since the first conference (Bern, 1981). This issue contains 22 papers on the following topics: measurements of the distribution and exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere, oceans and continents; interpretation of temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration and isotopic composition; modeling the carbon cycle; and past and future long-term changes in the carbon cycle.

Item #d95jul35

"Carbon-Biosphere-Climate Interactions in the Last Glacial Maximum Climate," P. Friedlingstein (Belgian Inst. Space Aeron., Brussels 1150, Belg.), K.C. Prentice et al., J. Geophys. Res., 100(D4), 7203-7221, Apr. 20, 1995.

Focuses on the uncertainties and sensitivities of model estimates of terrestrial carbon inventories in altered climates. Analyzes the total carbon inventory in the last glacial maximum and examines its sensitivity to vegetation distribution and carbon dynamics. For most forest vegetation types, carbon densities for the LGM are within 10% of their present-day values.

Item #d95jul36

"Climate-Driven Flushing of Pore Water in Peatlands," D.I. Siegel (Dept. Earth Sci., Syracuse Univ., Syracuse NY 13244), A.S. Reeve et al., Nature, 374(6522), 531-533, Apr. 6, 1995.

Reports on the response of groundwater flow and porewater chemistry in the Glacial Lake Agassiz peatlands of northern Minnesota to the regional drought cycle. Periods of drought lasting for at least 3-5 years produce striking changes in the chemistry of the pore water and directly affect the rates of fermentation and methanogenesis and the export of dissolved carbon compounds.

Item #d95jul37

"Partitioning of Ocean and Land Uptake of CO2 as Inferred by ë13C Measurements from the NOAA [CMDL] Global Air Sampling Network," P. Ciais (Inst. Arctic & Alpine Res., Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80302), P.P. Tans et al., J. Geophys. Res., 100(D3), 5051-5070, Mar. 20, 1995.

Describes a new inverse isotopic method for calculating the intensity and the ocean/land partitioning of CO2 fluxes as a function of latitude and time. Using an extensive 1992 data set from 40 sites, finds that global totals are 3.1 GTC (1 GTC = 1015 gC) of carbon dissolved in the ocean and 1.5 GTC sequestered by land ecosystems. Northern Hemisphere ocean gyres north of 15° N have absorbed 2.7 GTC.

Item #d95jul38

"The Northeast Water Polynya as an Atmospheric CO2 Sink: A Seasonal Rectification Hypothesis," P.L. Yager (Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), D.W.R. Wallace et al., ibid., 100(C3), 4389-4398, Mar. 15, 1995.

Presents an hypothesis, based on water column measurements and observations, whereby seasonally ice-covered regions promote a unique biologically and physically mediated rectification of the typical seasonal cycle of air-sea CO2 flux that results in a carbon sink. The process could provide a small negative feedback to excess atmospheric CO2.

Item #d95jul39

"Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils," J.W. Raich (Dept. Bot., Iowa State Univ., Ames IA 50011), C.S. Potter, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 23-36, Mar. 1995.

Uses statistical models to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of global CO2 emissions, including respiration of soil organisms and plant roots. Rates of soil CO2 efflux correlate well with temperature and precipitation, but not with soil carbon and nitrogen pools or soil C:N. Statistically-based estimates at a 0.5° latitude by longitude spatial and monthly temporal resolution represent the best-resolved estimates to date of global CO2 fluxes from soils and should facilitate investigations of net carbon exchanges between the atmosphere and terrestrial biosphere.

Item #d95jul40

"Carbon Pools and Accumulation in Peatlands of the Former Soviet Union," M.S. Botch (Dept. Civil Eng., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), K.I. Kobak et al., ibid., 37-46.

Estimates the areal extent, carbon pools, and rate of carbon accumulation by interrelating several regional databases and maps, including formerly classified maps. At present, peat accumulation/utilization is a net source of about 70 Tg C/yr to the atmosphere.

Item #d95jul41

"Impulse-Response Functions and Anthropogenic CO2," F.N. Tubiello (NASA Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025), M. Oppenheimer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(4), 413-416, Feb. 15, 1995.

Even when linear representations of the carbon cycle are used, the calculation of time scales characterizing the removal of excess CO2 depends on past emissions.

Item #d95jul42

"Photochemical Production of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon from Terrestrial Organic Matter: Significance to the Oceanic Organic Carbon Cycle," W.L. Miller (ERL, EPA, 960 College Sta. Rd., Athens GA 30605), R.G. Zepp, ibid., 417-420.

Evaluates water samples for ability to produce CO and dissolved inorganic carbon by photochemical oxidation of natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Results indicate that photo-oxidation of DOC by sunlight should be considered a dominant removal mechanism of organic carbon from the ocean.

Item #d95jul43

"The Sensitivity of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Climatic Change: A Simulation of the Middle Holocene," J.A. Foley (Inst. Environ. Stud., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(4), 505-525, Dec. 1994.

Applies a process-based model, DEMETER, to current climate and to a simulated mid-Holocene climate. Mid-Holocene global net primary productivity is about 3% greater than present, due largely to the increase of boreal forest and tropical grasslands relative to tundra and desert, and global vegetation carbon is higher by about 4%. Despite regional changes in productivity and carbon storage, the simulated total carbon storage potential of the terrestrial biosphere does not change significantly between the two simulations.

Item #d95jul44

"A 'Model Forest Model': Steps Toward Detailed Carbon Budget Assessments of Boreal Forest Ecosystems," D.T. Price (Canadian For. Serv., 5320-122 St., Edmonton AB T6H 3S5, Can.), M.J. Apps et al., World Resour. Rev., 6(4), 461-476, Dec. 1994.

The assessment involves the Foothills Forest, one of 10 model forests established by the Canadian government. Compilation and analysis of data on forest growth and yield, ecosystem classification, soils, losses due to fires and insect attack, and historical data on harvesting and wood processing will be used along with national and ecosystem scale models. The end product will be a carbon budget analysis for a representative year that will enable the study of the implications of various scenarios for changes in management or climate, and will assist with merging economic objectives and ecological values.

Item #d95jul45

"Estimating the Change of Carbon in the Terrestrial Biosphere from 18 000 BP to Present Using a Carbon Cycle Model," G. Esser (Inst. Plant Ecol., Justus Liebig Univ., Heinrich Buff Ring 38, D-6300 Giessen, Ger.), M. Lautenschlager, Environ. Pollut., 83, 45-53, 1994.

Low atmospheric CO2 concentration may have favored C4 plants in the ice age. As a result the influence of low CO2 concentration eventually decreased and the glacial carbon storage in vegetation, litter, and soil increased.

Item #d95jul46

Special section: "Impacts of Harvesting and Site Preparation on Carbon Cycling Processes in Forests," N. Zealand J. For. Sci., 23(3), 1994. (Reprints are available from D.W. Johnson, Desert Res. Inst., POB 60220, Reno NV 89506.)

Topics include roles of soil carbon in forest productivity and the global carbon cycle, effects of forest management on soil carbon, and effects of rising CO2 and possible climate change on soil carbon storage and other soil processes.

Item #d95jul47

"Sensitivity of the Terrestrial Biosphere to Climatic Changes: Impact on the Carbon Cycle," P. Friedlingstein (Dept. Oceanog., Free Univ. Brussels, CP208, Bld du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels, Belg.), J.-F. Müller, G.P. Brasseur, Environ. Pollut., 83, 143-147, 1994.

Developed a 5° x 5° longitude-latitude resolution model of the biosphere in which global distributions of major biospheric variables are determined from climatic variables. Comparison with results from present-day climate simulations shows the high sensitivity of the geographical distribution of vegetation types, carbon content and biospheric trace gases emissions to climatic changes.

Item #d95jul48

"Long-Term Monitoring of Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Stratospheric CO2 over Japan," T. Gamo (Ocean Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1-15-1, Minamidai, Nakano, Tokyo 164, Japan), M. Tsutsumi et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(4), 397-400, Feb. 15, 1995.

Presents the first temporal ë13C and ë18O records between 1985 and 1991. Stratospheric ë13C is gradually decreasing at a rate of -0.03% per year due to anthropogenic effects.

Item #d95jul49

"Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Carbon Cycle," D.S. Schimel (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Global Change Biology, 1(1), 77-91, Feb. 1995.

Presents key results from an assessment for the IPCC, and presents detail beyond that assessment on procedures used to approximate flux uncertainties. Lack of knowledge about positive and negative feedbacks from the biosphere is a major factor limiting credible simulations of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Contains extensive references and lists critical areas for future research.

Item #d95jul50

"Changes in Oceanic and Terrestrial Carbon Uptake Since 1982," R.J. Francey (CSIRO, Priv. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), P.P. Tans et al., Nature, 373(6512), 326-330, Jan. 26, 1995.

Presents measurements of ë13C for Northern and Southern Hemispheres over the past decade. Finds that the large and continuing decrease in CO2 growth starting in 1988 involves increases in both terrestrial and oceanic uptake, the latter persisting through 1992.

Item #d95jul51

"The Role of Deep Roots in the Hydrological and Carbon Cycles of Amazonian Forests and Pastures," D.C. Nepstad (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., POB 296, Woods Hole MA 02543), C.R. de Carvalho et al., Nature, 372(6507), 666-669, Dec. 15, 1994.

Uses rainfall, satellite and field data to estimate that half of the closed forests of Brazilian Amazonia depend on deep root systems to maintain green canopies during the dry season. As deep roots extract water they also provide carbon to the soil, and forest alteration that affects depth distributions of carbon inputs from roots may also affect net carbon storage.

Item #d95jul52

"Evidence for Interannual Variability of the Carbon Cycle from the [NOAA/CMDL] Global Air Sampling Network," T.J. Conway (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), P.P. Tans et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 22,831-22,855, Nov. 20, 1994.

Extensive weekly sampling between 1981 and 1992 shows that the global CO2 growth rate has declined from a peak of ~2.5 ppm/yr in 1987-1988 to ~0.6 ppm/yr in 1992. A 2-D model analysis indicates that the low growth rate in 1992 is mainly due to an increase in the Northern Hemisphere CO2 sink, probably in the terrestrial biosphere. One possibility is the temperature-induced decrease in plant respiration due to cooling following the Mount Pinatubo eruption. However, the fluctuation is probably temporary, and a return to a higher growth rate is expected.

Item #d95jul53

"Not All African Land Is Being Degraded: A Recent Survey of Trees on Farms in Kenya Reveals Rapidly Increasing Forest Resources," P. Holmgren (Dept. Forest Soils, Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., POB 7001, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), E.J. Masakha, H. Sjöholm, Ambio, 23(7), 390-395, Nov. 1994.

From 1986 to 1992 the annual increase in biomass was 4.7% on high potential land, where 80% of the population lives. Kenyan farmers seem to apply sustainable management practices, including tree growing. The land tenure system (privately owned agricultural land) is a significant reason.

Item #d95jul54

"North African Savanna Fires and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," S.F. Iacobellis (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), R. Frouin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), 8321-8334, Apr. 20, 1994.

Modeling results demonstrate the strong remote effects of African biomass burning which, due to the general circulation of the atmosphere, are felt as far away as South America.

Item #d95jul55

"Reservoir Timescales for Anthropogenic CO2 in the Atmosphere," B.C. O'Neill (Dept. Earth Sys. Sci., New York Univ., New York NY 10003), S.R. Gaffin et al., Tellus, 46B(5), 378-389, Nov. 1994.

A number of timescales are being used in both scientific and policy contexts to describe the behavior of greenhouse gases, but precise definitions are not being used, leading to confusion over how to calculate, compare and interpret these numbers. This paper analyzes the situation theoretically, particularly the case of departure from steady state as in the atmosphere. Discusses results in light of global warming policy issues, since any comparisons of lifetimes of different greenhouse gases must use a consistent definition.

Item #d95jul56

"North African Savanna Fires and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide," S.F. Iacobellis (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), R. Frouin et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), 8321-8334, Apr. 20, 1994.

Modeling results demonstrate the strong remote effects of African biomass burning which, due to the general circulation of the atmosphere, are felt as far away as South America.

Item #d95jul57

"Land Use, North-South Trade, Deforestation and Atmospheric Carbon Interactions," D.W. Jones (Energy Div., Bldg. 4500N, MS-6205, Oak Ridge Natl. Lab., POB 2800, Oak Ridge TN 37831), R.V. O'Neill, Resour. & Energy Econ., 15(4), 353-370, 1993.

Models carbon interactions, assuming a single industrial (carbon releasing) region producing only a manufactured good, and one agricultural region producing a homogeneous agricultural good. Studies the effects of carbon release from manufacturing and from agricultural land clearing on agricultural production (through elevated CO2). Other factors influencing the carbon budget are population changes, costs of retarding carbon releases, and the strength of the relationship between atmospheric carbon concentration and agricultural production.

Specialized Papers

Item #d95jul58

"Effect of the Nonlinearity of the Carbonate System on Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide in the Oceans," P. Trela (Dept. Oceanog., Dalhousie Univ., Halifax NS B3H 4J1, Can.), S. Sathyendranath et al., J. Geophys. Res., 100(C4), 6829-6844, Apr. 15, 1995.

Item #d95jul59

"Development of Improved Space Sampling Strategies for Ocean Chemical Properties: Total Carbon Dioxide and Dissolved Nitrate," C. Goyet (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543), D. Davis et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(8), 945-948, Apr. 15, 1995.

Item #d95jul60

"Distribution of Radiocarbon as a Test of Global Carbon Cycle Models," A.K. Jain (Lawrence-Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), H.S. Kheshgi et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 9(1), 153-166, Mar. 1995.

Item #d95jul61

"Exports of Carbon and Nitrogen from River Basins in Canada's Atlantic Provinces," T.A. Clair (Ecosys. Sci. Div., Environ. Canada, POB 1590, Sackville NB E0A 3C0, Can.), T.L. Pollock, J.M. Ehrman, ibid., 8(4), 441-450, Dec. 1994.

Item #d95jul62

"Forest-to-Pasture Conversion Influences on Soil Organic Dynamics in a Tropical Deciduous Forest," F. Garcia-Oliva (Ctr. Ecol., Univ. Nac. Autónoma México, DF, AP 70-275, CP 04510, México), I. Casar et al., Oecologia, 99(3-4), 392-396, 1994.

Item #d95jul63

"The Carbon Budget of Canadian Forests: A Sensitivity Analysis of Changes in Disturbance Regimes, Growth Rates, and Decomposition Rates," W.A. Kurz (ESSA Environ. & Social Sys. Analysts Ltd., 1765 W. 8th Ave., Vancouver BC V6J 5C6, Can.), M.J. Apps, Environ. Pollut., 83, 55-61, 1994.

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