Global Climate Change Digest: Main Page | Introduction | Archives | Calendar | Copy Policy | Abbreviations | Guide to Publishers

GCRIO Home ->arrow Library ->arrow Archives of the Global Climate Change Digest ->arrow December 1995 ->arrow PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... ENERGY POLICY Search

U.S. Global Change Research Information Office logo and link to home

Last Updated:
February 28, 2007

GCRIO Program Overview



Our extensive collection of documents.


Get Acrobat Reader

Privacy Policy

Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95dec22

"A Century of Energy Conversion—An Environmental Overview," F.B. Chaaban (American Univ. Beirut, Faculty Eng. & Architecture, 850 Third Ave., New York NY 10022), R. Assi, J. Abdo, Intl. J. Environ. Studies, 47(2), 133-142, 1995.

Discusses the correlation between energy production and its environmental impacts in the 20th century, and ways the electricity generation and transportation industries can reduce the impacts. Renewable energy resources are not used on a large scale yet, but they offer an attractive alternative for cleaner electricity.

Item #d95dec23

"Role of Road Transport in UK's Energy Policy," T.J. Price (Dept. Appl. Energy, Cranfield Univ., Bedford MK43 0AL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl. Energy, 50(1), 1-22, 1995.

There is growing concern in the UK about increasing pollution and dwindling fossil-fuel reserves. The government's transportation policy needs to shift its emphasis from road to rail transport, and car ownership should be perceived as a luxury.

Item #d95dec24

"Ensuring that Oil Remains the Pre-eminent Source of Energy," OPEC Bull., pp. 4-7, Sep. 1995.

An interview with Rilwanu Lukman, Secretary General of OPEC, who states that the organization is against taxes that discourage the use of oil in favor of other forms of energy, such as coal, that are more harmful to the environment. Many of these taxes are really designed to help the governments of consuming countries reduce their budget deficits, and are not used to improve the environment. Such taxes limit the revenues of oil producers so that they are unable to invest enough in exploration production to meet future demand.

Item #d95dec25

"Energy Intensity: A New Look," H. Khatib (Comm. for Developing Countries, World Energy Council, POB 925387, Amman, Jordan), Energy Policy, 23(8), 727-729, Aug. 1995.

Because countries vary in their means of converting gross domestic product (GDP) into U.S. dollars, calculations of energy intensity (usually kg oil equivalent per U.S. dollar of GDP) are distorted. Presenting GDP in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP$) helps to alleviate this distortion and allows the energy intensity of developing countries to be presented in a more favorable way. However, the new calculations should not interfere with efforts to reduce energy intensities. Both the present value of energy intensity and the improvement of this value over time are important.

Item #d95dec26

"New Light—and Heat—on Forests as Energy Reserves," C.L. Shaw (Assoc. Intl. Resour. & Develop., 185 Alewife Brook Pkwy., Cambridge MA 02138), ibid., 23(7), 607-617, July 1995.

It is a common assumption that woodfuels are inferior goods and that, in a poor country, per capita income will lead to increased use of woodfuel substitutes. While this may be true in the long term, evidence for Madagascar suggests that in the short and medium term, woodfuels are normal goods. Reliance on income gains to alleviate pressure on forests from energy consumption is not sound environmental and energy policy.

Item #d95dec27

"Energy and Environmental Policies of the Developed and Developing Countries Within the Evolving Oceania and South-East Asia Trading Bloc," R.M. Mackay (Mackay Res., Firs Hollow, S. Park, Sevenoaks, Kent TN13 1EL, UK), S.D. Probert, Appl. Energy, 51(4), 369-400, 1995.

Reliable partnerships between energy-rich and energy-poor countries and between developed and developing countries is required if the world is to progress in a sustainable manner. The Oceania and South-East Asia trading bloc is emerging as such a partnership. Any other approach to foreign investment could prove disastrous for the region as a whole.

Item #d95dec28

"Towards a Sustainable Energy Future," N.G. Ketting (Electricity Generating Bd., POB 575, 6800 AN Arnhem, Neth.), Energy Policy, 23(7), 637-638, July 1995.

Disagrees with an idea expressed in a Greenpeace report (Towards a Fossil-Free Energy Future) of rapidly reducing fossil fuel consumption, and banning hydropower and nuclear energy at the same time. This would make us overdependent on technological breakthroughs. During the transition to renewable energy options, we will still need fossil fuels as well as nuclear energy if economic development, particularly in the developing countries, is to move forward.

Item #d95dec29

"From Rio to Beijing: Engendering the Energy Debate," E.W. Cecelski (Bahnstr. 24, D-51688 Wipperf?rth, Ger.), ibid., 23(6), 561-575, June 1995.

Suggests that mutual concerns of energy and gender forums could be addressed jointly, furthering both the Rio energy program goal of sustainable development and the Beijing women's agenda of development, equality and peace. Points out previously neglected issues for gender research such as promoting the energy transition, energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable transport systems.

Item #d95dec30

"Renewable Liquid Fuels," P.H. Abelson, Science,268(5213), 955, May 19, 1995.

An editorial discussing large-scale production of biodiesel oil produced from renewable raw materials, such as soybean, rapeseed, and palm oils, a major benefit of which is a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Production of biodiesel may be less energy intensive than production of alcohol from wood. The U.S. and other countries should give high priority to its research and development. In the U.S., favorable regulatory treatment for biodiesel oils would speed their use, and the development of cheaper supplies. (For more information contact J. Kenlon, Natl. Biodiesel Bd. (tel: 314 635 3893).

Item #d95dec31

"Making Nuclear Power Usable Again," Nature, 375(6527), 91-92, May 11, 1995.

Because of the likelihood of future restrictions on the quantities of fossil fuel that can be burned, major industrial countries may need to generate more electricity from nuclear fission. Due to possible international consequences such as the Chernobyl incident, international safeguards are needed such as international supervision of reactor operators, high-level radioactive waste disposal and plutonium stockpiling. Governments individually must invest political capital in winning public consent for proposals for low-level radioactive waste disposal.

Item #d95dec32

"Urbanization, Energy Use and Greenhouse Effects in Economic Development: Results from a Cross-National Study of Developing Countries," J. Parikh (I. Gandhi Inst., Gen. Vaidya Marg, Goregaon East Bombay 400 065, India), V. Shukla, Global Environ. Change, 5(2), 87-103, May 1995.

Assesses the impact on the greenhouse effect that results from economic development. Uses a fixed effects model of the determinants of total energy usage and then uses the determinants to estimate a country's greenhouse gas emissions. Focuses on developing countries to study the effects of urbanization by use sector and fuel type, and traces the emissions attributable to each of these component fuel uses. Discusses policy implications for developing countries.

Item #d95dec33

"Environmental and Social Impacts of Large Scale Hydroelectric Development: Who is Listening?" D.M. Rosenberg (Dept. Fisheries & Oceans, 501 Univ. Crescent, Winnipeg MB R3T 2N6, Can.), R.A. Bodaly, P.J. Usher, ibid., 127-148.

Looks at several issues including greenhouse gas emissions. Under natural conditions, the net greenhouse effect from upland forest and peatland areas in Canada is about zero. However, microbial decomposition caused by flooding these lands for hydroelectric reservoirs may upset the natural balance and release CH4 and CO2. The rate of emission after flooding may be similar to that of power plants run by fossil fuels.

Item #d95dec34

"Revisiting the Energy Crisis: How Far Have We Come?" D.L. Feldman, Environment, 37(4), 16-20, 42-44, May 1995.

Since the first energy crisis 20 years ago, motor vehicles are more fuel efficient, gas and oil prices are largely deregulated, and there is far greater availability of oil in the spot market. However, the U.S. still relies heavily on fossil fuel and the debate between market control or government regulation continues. The complex relationships between government and markets suggest the need for a policy characterized by continued research and development, encouragement of energy conservation, and sensible supply initiatives.

Item #d95dec35

"Improving International Assistance for Renewable Electricity Generation in Developing Countries," K. Kozloff (World Resour. Inst., 1709 New York Ave. NW, Washington DC 20006), World Resour. Rev., 7(1), 47-62, Mar. 1995.

Renewable energy technologies would allow developing countries to expand their power production without contributing to global warming. However, industrialized countries have had more success at increasing the use of renewables among themselves than in the developing countries. Examines market and policy barriers that inhibit greater use of renewables in developing countries, past development assistance for renewable electric generation, and ways to improve the effectiveness of international assistance in stimulating sustainable markets for these technologies.

Item #d95dec36

"Transport Demand Management in 'Yuppieland'," S. Peake (Royal Inst. Intl. Affairs, 10 St. James's Square, London SW1 4LE, UK), Energy Policy, 23(2), 179-180, Feb. 1995.

A report on the 22nd European Transport Forum (Univ. Warwick, U.K., 1994) and its major theme of incorporating energy and environmental considerations into transport decisions. The Netherlands has led the way towards fully integrated demand management, but the most effective measures, increased fuel prices, vehicle taxes, parking charges and road pricing, are unpopular. The move towards demand management is growing in the U.K. with emphasis on changing behavior and on land-use planning to reduce traffic growth. The U.K. should adopt more effective measures, including higher fuel prices, lower speed limits, tax incentives for home-based work, and more investment in nonmotorized transport.

Item #d95dec37

"Demand-Side Management: The Third Wave," F.P. Sioshansi (Elect. Power Res. Inst., 3412 Hillview Ave., Palo Alto CA 94304), ibid., 111-114.

Demand-side management (DSM), which evolved in the early 1970s, is about to enter a more mature phase as the U.S. electric power industry prepares for a competitive business environment. Only DSM measures that make good business sense will be pursued, and depending on future utility business strategies, DSM practices will vary among regions and utility companies.

Item #d95dec38

"An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of US CAFE [Corporate Average Fuel Economy] Policy," E.G. Kirby (Sch. Mgmt., Univ. Kentucky, Lexington KY 40506), ibid., 107-109.

Evaluates the effectiveness of minimum automobile fuel economy standards, finding that over the past 20 years overall fuel efficiency has increased and the amount of imported oil used by each vehicle has decreased. However, overall oil importation has increased due to the increase in the number of cars on the road and the decrease in the real price of gasoline. Recommends policies that will reduce the number of cars and demand for gasoline, to achieve an overall reduction in oil imports.

Item #d95dec39

"Energy Development in China: National Policies and Regional Strategies," K. Wu (East-West Ctr., 1777 East-West Rd., Honolulu HI 96848), B. Li, ibid., 167-178.

Formulates national energy policies in China for specific forms of energy (oil, coal, natural gas, hydropower and nuclear), and determines regional strategies by the location of energy resources. Even though trends in the development of energy resources are unique to China, the conclusion drawn from analysis of China are useful for other developing countries that are large, resource-rich and experiencing rapid economic growth.

Item #d95dec40

"Energy Conservation in China: An International Perspective," Z.X. Zhang (Dept. General Econ., Landbouw Univ. Wageningen, POB 8130, 6700 EW Wageningen, Neth.), ibid., 159-166.

Reviews China's energy conservation to date and its potential for longer-term energy conservation, using a sector-by-sector comparison of energy intensity. Concludes that there is a need for drastic reform of China's energy policies combined with fundamental reform of aid and loan practices.

Item #d95dec41

"Social Costing of Electricity in Maryland: Effects on Pollution, Investment, and Prices," K. Palmer (Resources for the Future, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036), A. Krupnick et al., Energy J., 16(1), 1-26, Jan. 1995.

To date, social costing has been applied only to the evaluation of new sources of electricity. Application only at the investment stage may lead to reduced investment in new resources, increased use of existing generation resources and higher emissions of key pollutants. Applying social costing to dispatching new and used generating units generally leads to increased levels of investment in clean technologies, lower levels of emissions and only moderate price increases.

Item #d95dec42

Special issue: "Markets for Energy Efficiency," H. Huntington, L. Schipper, A.H. Sanstad, Eds., Energy Policy, 22(10), 795-883, Oct. 1994.

"Editor's Introduction," 795-797.

"Energy and the Environment: Something New Under the Sun?" J.D. Scheraga (Clim. Change Div. (2122), U.S. EPA, 401 M St. SW, Washington DC 20460), 798-803. Questions about the relationship between energy use and climate change are the same as those raised in the 1970s and 1980s about the relationship between energy use, economic growth and environmental impacts. To answer the questions we need to better understand the factors underlying energy consumption decisions, the potential existence of market imperfections, the divergence of private and social discount rates, and the process of innovation that leads to the development of more energy-efficient technologies.

"The Energy-Efficiency Gap: What Does It Mean?" A.B. Jaffe (Dept. Econ., Brandeis Univ., Waltham MA 02254), R.N. Stavins, 804-810.

"'Normal' Markets, Market Imperfections and Energy Efficiency," A.H. Sanstad (Energy Anal. Prog., Bldg. 90, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), R.B. Howarth, 811-818.

"Economics and Rational Conservation Policy," G.E. Metcalf (Dept. Econ., Tufts Univ., Medford MA 02150), 819-825.

"Technical Evidence for Assessing the Performance of Markets Affecting Energy Efficiency," J.G. Koomey (Energy Anal. Prog., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), A.H. Sanstad, 826-832.

"Been Top Down So Long It Looks Like Bottom Up to Me," H.G. Huntington (Energy Modeling Forum, 406 Terman Ctr., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), 833-839.

"Demand-Side Management: Overcoming Market Barriers or Obscuring Real Costs?" A.L. Nichols (Natl. Econ. Res. Assoc. Inc., One Main St., Cambridge MA 02142), 840-847.

"On the Assessment of Utility Demand-Side Management Programs," M.D. Levine (Energy Anal. Prog., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA 94720), R. Sonnenblick, 848-856.

"The Consumer's Energy Analysis Environment," W. Kempton (Ctr. Energy & Environ. Policy, Univ. Delaware, Newark DE 19716), L.L. Layne, 857-866.

"Innovation and Organizational Networks: Barriers to Energy Efficiency in the US Housing Industry," L. Lutzenhiser (Dept. Sociol., Washington State Univ., Pullman WA 99164), 867-876.

"Modeling Energy Technology Choices: Which Investment Analysis Tools Are Appropriate?" B.E. Johnson (Stanford Univ., 402 Terman Eng. Bldg., Stanford CA 94390), 877-883.

Item #d95dec43

"The Energy Paradox and the Diffusion of Conservation Technology," A.B. Jaffe (Dept. Econ., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), R.N. Stavins, Resour. & Energy Econ., 16(2), 91-122, May 1994.

Focuses on the factors that cause the diffusion of apparently cost-effective energy conservation technologies to be gradual, including those associated with potential market failures. Analysis indicates how alternative policy instruments, both economic incentives and direct regulations, can hasten the diffusion of energy-conserving technologies.

  • Guide to Publishers
  • Index of Abbreviations

  • Hosted by U.S. Global Change Research Information Office. Copyright by Center for Environmental Information, Inc. For more information contact U.S. Global Change Research Information Office, Suite 250, 1717 Pennsylvania Ave, NW, Washington, DC 20006. Tel: +1 202 223 6262. Fax: +1 202 223 3065. Email: Web: Webmaster:
    U.S. Climate Change Technology Program Intranet Logo and link to Home