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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d95apr101

Global Warming: Economic Dimensions and Policy Responses, OECD, 1995, $53/DM87/FF220. From OECD.

Despite considerable uncertainty, policy actions may be justified because they provide insurance against possible climate damage. A first step is exploiting measures that reduce greenhouse gases with only small output losses. Policies beyond these are likely to work best through economic instruments such as taxes or subsidies. The massive emission cuts that may be necessary to stabilize climate will require the cooperation of the non-industrial countries.

Item #d95apr102

Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change, B. Smit, Ed., 53 pp., released 1995. Contact Dept. Geog., Univ. Guelph, Guelph ON N1G 2W1, Can. (519 824 4120). In English or French.

A report from the Task Force on Climate Adaptation (of the Canadian Climate Program), established to examine this issue and make proposals for appropriate action. Recommends that both the private sector and all levels of government recognize the inherent variability in climate and consider adopting adaptive strategies. Governments also should, for example, promote awareness of climate variability and change, and support and undertake research. Canada should promote consideration of adaptation in international organizations and bilateral initiatives.

Item #d95apr103

African Voices on Climate Change-Policy Concerns and Potentials, S. Silveira, Ed., 39 pp., 1994. Free of charge from SEI (Stockholm Environ. Inst.), Info. Off., Box 2142, S-10314, Stockholm, Swed.

Item #d95apr104

Four working papers from CSERGE:

Trees, People, the Missing Sink, and the Greenhouse Effect, N. Adger, K. Brown, 30 pp., 1994, $9/£5.

Climatic Change, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Future Climate and Response Strategies: The Implications for India, P.G. Rao, M. Kelly et al., 63 pp., 1994, $9/£5.

Sustainable Development and Climate Change, R.K. Turner, 14 pp., 1995, $4/£2.

The Precautionary Principle, Science, Politics and Ethics, T. O'Riordan, A. Jordan, 28 pp., 1995, $4/£2.

Item #d95apr105

Global Assessment of Environmental Refugees-Impending Crisis, Mar. 1995. A 15-page executive summary is available from Climate Inst., 324 Fourth St. NE, Washington DC 20002 (tel: 202 547 0104; fax: 22 547 0111).

Based on a two-year study that found that there are at least 25 million environmental refugees today, compared with 20 million traditional refugees. That number may double by 2010, and may grow more rapidly as global warming induces sea-level rise, coastal flooding, drought, and agricultural dislocations. Eventually 200 million people could be at risk of displacement.

Item #d95apr106

Out of the Frying Pan, Avoiding the Fire: Ending the Use of Methyl Bromide, Apr. 1995. Contact Ozone Action, 1621 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington DC 20009 (202 265 6738).

Recommends taxing the use of this ozone-depleting pesticide, then banning its use in the U.S. in 1997. Cites a UNEP report that there are currently or soon to be available alternatives for 90% of methyl bromide's current uses.

Item #d95apr107

Index of Environmental Trends-An Assessment of Twenty-One Key Environmental Indicators in Nine Industrialized Countries over the Past Two Decades, G. Alperovitz, T. Howard et al., 68 pp., Apr. 1995, $10. Available from Natl. Ctr. for Economic Alternatives, 2040 S St. NW, Washington DC 20009 (tel: 202 986 1373; fax: 202 986 7938; e-mail:

Used data from Canada, Denmark, France, W. Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, the U.K., and the U.S. to develop an aggregate gauge of environmental quality. Found there have been few real environmental trend reversals within these countries; generally the environment has declined, despite reforms made. The trends would have been far worse if the economy had been stronger.

Item #d95apr108

Sulphates, Climate and Coal, D.M.B. Adams, I.M. Smith, 30 pp., Jan. 1995, £95/£255 (non-member countries). A Perspectives report from IEA Coal Res., Gemini House, 10-18 Putney Hill, London SW15 6AA, UK (tel: 44 0 181 780 2111; fax: 44 0 181 780 1746); U.S. distributor: Ctr. Appl. Energy Res. (Attn: Theresa Wiley), 3572 Iron Works Pike, Lexington KY 40511 (tel: 606 257 0308; fax: 606 257 0220).

Reviews the formation of sulfate aerosols, which result in part from coal combustion, and how they cool the atmosphere. The effects are difficult to quantify, but need to be included in model simulations of climate change. In the long term, their cooling effect would be overwhelmed by the warming effect of greenhouse gases.

Item #d95apr109

Greenhouse Gases-Perspectives on Coal, I. Smith, C. Nilsson, D. Adams, 41 pp., Aug. 1994, £95/£255 (non-member countries). From IEA Coal Res. (see preceding entry).

Efficiency improvements could reduce CO2 emissions from coal combustion, primarily from power generation, by 20-60%. For greater reductions, capture technologies can be used, but at considerable energy penalties and costs. There is still a lack of data on various options for CO2 disposal.

Item #d95apr110

Environmental Regulation, Jobs and U.S. Competitiveness: What's the Real Issue?, R. Repetto, $16.45. Order from WRI (World Resour. Inst.) Publications, POB 4852, Hampden Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800 822 0504 or 410 516 6963); in the U.K. and Europe: Earthscan Pubs. Ltd., 120 Pentonville Rd., London N1 9JN (tel: 071 278 0433; fax: 071 278 1142).

Despite an improved economy, environmental progress is at a standstill. Although many fear that the U.S. can't afford stronger environmental protection, this study shows that stringent environmental regulations do not result in lost jobs or put the U.S. at a competitive disadvantage.

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