February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 4, APRIL 1995
"Influence of Lunar Phase on Daily Global
Temperatures," R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Climatol., Arizona
State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), R.S. Cerveny, Science, 267(5203),
1481-1482, Mar. 10, 1995.
Lunar influence is a potential forcing mechanism on short-term
global temperatures. Results confirm the accuracy of global
temperature measurements by satellite.
items from J. Clim., 8(3), Mar. 1995:
"Detection of Forced Climate Signals. Part I: Filter
Theory," G.R. North (Coll. Geosci. & Maritime Stud.,
Texas A&M Univ., Coll. Sta. TX 77843), K.-Y. Kim et al.,
401-408. Discusses the construction of a linear smoothing filter
for estimating the forced part of a change in a climatological
field such as surface temperature. The filter suppresses the
natural variability or "noise" relative to the forced
part or "signal" to the maximum extent possible. Gives
"...Part II. Simulation Results," G.R. North (addr.
immed. above), K.-Y. Kim, 409-417. Tests the procedures from Part
I to learn which factors deserve the most attention and which
parts of the procedure are most sensitive to assumptions.
"Large-Scale Atmospheric Forcing of Recent Trends Toward
Early Snowmelt Runoff in California," M.D. Dettinger (USGS,
5735 Kearny Villa Rd., Suite O, San Diego CA 92123), D.R. Cayan,
606-623. Since the late 1940s, snow melt has come increasingly
early in northern and central California due to a long-term
fluctuation in winter circulation over the North Pacific Ocean
and North America that is not easily distinguished from natural
variability. Winter wind fields have moved southward over the
central North Pacific and northward over the West Coast. These
shifts are associated with concurrent shifts in West Coast air
temperatures and North Pacific sea surface temperatures.
"Long-Term Monitoring of Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of
Stratospheric CO2 over Japan," T. Gamo (Ocean
Res. Inst., Univ. Tokyo, 1-15-1, Minamidai, Nakano, Tokyo 164,
Japan), M. Tsutsumi et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(4),
397-400, Feb. 15, 1995.
Presents the first temporal d13C and d18O records between 1985
and 1991. Stratospheric d13C is gradually decreasing at a rate of
-0.03% per year due to anthropogenic effects.
from ibid., 22(3), Feb. 1, 1995:
"Decline of Hexachlorocyclohexane in the Arctic
Atmosphere and Reversal of Air-Sea Gas Exchange," T.F.
Bidleman (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON
M3H 5T4, Can.), L.M. Jantunen et al., 219-222. Measurements for
1979-1993 indicate that atmospheric concentrations of a-HCH have
declined significantly. The decline has reversed the net
direction of air-sea gas exchange to the point where some
northern waters are now sources of the pesticide instead of
"Analysis of German Climatic Variations During the Period
of Instrumental Record," R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Climatol.,
Arizona State Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), 223-226. In the past 140
years, Germany's mean annual temperature has warmed by 0.66·C.
However, in the most recent 80 years, Germany has shown no
statistically significant warming. The diurnal temperature range
has declined slightly and has a strong negative correlation with
precipitation over the period 1950-1989.
"Interdecadal Changes in El Niño Onset in the Last Four
Decades," B. Wang (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Hawaii, 2525 Correa
Rd., HIG 331, Honolulu HI 96822), J. Clim., 8(2),
267-285, Feb. 1995.
The characteristics of the onset of Pacific basin-wide warming
have changed since the late 1970s due to a change in the
background state on which El Niño evolves.
"Changes in Oceanic and Terrestrial Carbon Uptake Since
1982," R.J. Francey (CSIRO, Priv. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195,
Australia), P.P. Tans et al., Nature, 373(6512),
326-330, Jan. 26, 1995.
Presents measurements of d13C for Northern and Southern
Hemispheres over the past decade. Finds that the large and
continuing decrease in CO2 growth starting in 1988
involves increases in both terrestrial and oceanic uptake, the
latter persisting through 1992.
items from Intl. J. Climatol., 15(1), Jan. 1995:
"Trends in Wind and Sea-Level Pressure in the Tropical
Pacific Ocean for the Period 1950-1979," M. Inoue (Coastal
Stud. Inst., Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge LA 70803), G.R.
Bigg, 35-52. Examines the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmospheric Data
Set (COADS) sea-level pressure observations to check for
dynamical consistency between observed trends in wind-speed
components and trends in sea-level pressure pattern. Results
suggest that the qualitative nature of observed trends in the
trade winds in the Pacific since 1950 is real.
"Recent Frost Date Trends in the North-Eastern USA,"
E.J. Cooter (ARL, NOAA, Res. Triangle Pk. NC 27711), S.K. Leduc,
65-75. On average for New England, there is a significant linear
trend indicating earlier initiations of frost-free conditions
from 1961 to 1990.
"Temperature Variations in a Tropical-Subtropical
Environment: Queensland, Australia, 1910-1987," J.M. Lough
(Australian Inst. Marine Sci., PMB 3, Townsville MC, Queensland
4810, Australia), 77-95. Minimum daily temperatures have
increased significantly and the daily temperature range has
decreased significantly in both summer and winter. The trends,
which are not unprecedented, cannot be attributed to urban
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D12), Dec. 20,
"Trends in the Vertical Distribution of Ozone: An
Analysis of Ozonesonde Data," J.A. Logan (Dept. Earth &
Planetary Sci., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138),
25,553-25,585. Presents an analysis of trends since 1970 and
discusses the quality of the data and inconsistencies among data
"Global-Scale Modes of Surface Temperature Variability on
Interannual to Century Timescales," M.E. Mann (Dept. Geol.
& Geophys., POB 208109, Yale Univ., New Haven CT 06520), J.
Park, 25,819-25,833. Analysis suggests a recent transition to a
regime of higher ENSO frequency. An interdecadal mode in the
15-18 years period range appears to represent long-term ENSO
variability. This mode has a sizeable projection onto global
average temperature, and accounts for much of the anomalous
global warmth of the 1980s.
"Summer Temperatures Across Northern North America:
Regional Reconstructions from 1760 Using Tree-Ring
Densities," K.R. Briffa (Sch. Environ. Sci., Univ. E.
Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), P.D. Jones, F.H. Schweingruber,
25,835-25,844. Reconstructions represent an extension of the mean
climate history of over 100 years for three regions. The dates of
the extreme cold summers in each series emphasize the strong
volcanic influence on extreme high-latitude temperatures. The
reconstructions also highlight the large regional differences in
the magnitude of this influence.
"Recent Decreasing Trend of Solar Radiation and Its Effect
on Summer Monsoon Rainfall of Eastern China," X. Qun
(Jiangsu Meteor. Inst., Bei-Ji-Guo, No. 2, Nanjing 210008,
China), World Resour. Rev., 6(4), 535-544, Dec.
The downward trends of S and Q for 1959-1988 are
-20.9% and -12.7% respectively. They are positively correlated
with the northward extent of the monsoon belt in eastern China
during summer, which has resulted in drought in north China and
floods in the Yangtze Valley for 14 recent summers.
"Satellite Detection of Increased Cyanobacteria Blooms in
the Baltic Sea: Natural Fluctuation or Ecosystem Change?" M.
Kahru (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), U. Horstmann,
O. Rud, Ambio, 23(8), 469-472, Dec. 1994.
Satellite data for 1982-1993 shows that the total area covered
by the blooms increased in the 1990s, reaching 62,000 km in 1992,
indicating significant changes in the Baltic environment.
Effect of Overgrazing on Historical Temperature Trends,"
H.A. Nasrallah, R.C. Balling Jr. (Off. Climatol., Arizona State
Univ., Tempe AZ 85287), Agric. & For. Meteor, 71(3-4),
425-430, Nov. 1994.
Examination of temperature records for 1901-1990 for a
latitudinal band extending from 10·N to 50·N, and of a UNEP map
of areas affected by overgrazing, shows that overgrazed areas
have warmed compared to nonimpacted land. While the temperature
increase may be important locally and regionally, the impact of
overgrazing probably accounts for less than 1% of global warming
for the time period.
related items in Science, 266(5185), Oct. 28, 1994
(see Global Climate Change Digest, Feb. 1994):
"Did the Tropical Pacific Drive the World's
"Simulations of Atmospheric Variability Induced by
Sea Surface Temperatures and Implications for Global
"Causes of Decadal Climate Variability over the North
Pacific and North America."
"Pattern of Annual Snow Accumulation Along a West Greenland
Flow Line: No Significant Change Observed During Recent
Decades," M. Anklin (Phys. Inst., Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012
Bern, Switz.), B. Stauffer et al., Tellus, 46B(4),
294-303, Sep. 1994.
Shallow drillings and pit studies at ten locations showed no
change in accumulation rates for the last 40 years, and no
significant evidence for a pronounced increase in the Greenland
surface mass balance as suggested by satellite altimetry.
and reply on "A Long Term Decrease in Arctic Haze at Barrow,
Alaska," Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(6), 739-742,
Mar. 15, 1995.
"Optimal Averaging for the Determination of Global Mean
Temperature: Experiments with Model Data," R.O. Weber
(Würenlingen & Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switz.), R.A.
Madden, J. Clim., 8(3), 418-430, Mar. 1995.
"Interpolation of Missing Data Using Nonlinear and Chaotic
System Analysis," R.E. Amritkar (Dept. Phys., Univ. Poona,
Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India), P.P. Kumar, J. Geophys. Res., 100(D2),
3149-3154, Feb. 20, 1995.
"Taking Serial Correlation into Account in Tests of the
Mean," F.W. Zwiers (Atmos. Environ. Serv., Univ. Victoria,
POB 1700, MS 3339, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Can.), H. von Storch, J.
Clim., 8(2), 336-351, Feb. 1995.
"Climate Variability and Change Within the Discharge Time
Series: A Statistical Approach," H.T. Mitosek (Inst.
Geophys., Polish Acad. Sci., ul. Ksiecia Janusza 64, 01-452
Warsaw, Poland), Clim. Change, 29(1), 101-116, Jan.
"Linear Least Squares Method for Time Series Analysis with
an Application to a Methane Time Series," M.A.K. Khalil
(Global Change Res. Ctr., Oregon Graduate Inst., 20000 NW Walker
Rd., Beaverton OR 97006), F.P. Moraes, J. Air & Waste
Mgmt. Assoc., 45(1), 62-63, Jan. 1995.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations