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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94oct30

Special Issue. J. Atmos. Sci., 50(20), approx. 325 pp., Oct. 15, 1994. Members of the Amer. Meteor. Soc. can receive single copies for the special price of $10; $35 per copy for nonmembers and institutions. Order from Amer. Meteor. Soc., 45 Beacon St., Boston MA 02108 (tel: 617-227-2425; fax: 617-742-8718).

Consists of 22 papers on early scientific results from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, most of which relate to stratospheric ozone depletion.

Item #d94oct31

"Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, ClO, and BrO," P.O. Wennberg (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., 12 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), R.C. Cohen et al., Science, 266(5184), 398-404, Oct. 21, 1994.

Used aircraft measurements from the 1993 SPADE (Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition). A single catalytic cycle, in which the rate limiting step is the reaction of HO2 with ozone, accounted for about half the total stratospheric O3 removal. Halogen-radical chemistry was responsible for about a third of photochemical removal of O3; catalytic destruction by NO2 accounted for less than 20%. In the air sampled, the rate of O3 removal inversely correlated with total NOx loading, a result with implications for the impact of stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

Item #d94oct32

"Increase in Levels of Stratospheric Chlorine and Fluorine Loading Between 1985 and 1992," M.R. Gunson (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), M.C. Abrams et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(20), 2223-2226, Oct. 1, 1994.

The 1992 ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy) experiment aboard the Space Shuttle measured the mixing ratios for HCl and HF as surrogates for total Cl and F. Compared to 1985 data, HCl and HF increased 37% and 62%, respectively. The trend in HCl is in good agreement with model predictions and ground-based observations. The main source of the change is attributable to anthropogenic CFCs and HCFCs.

Item #d94oct33

Three items in J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), Sep. 20, 1994:

"A Two-Dimensional Modeling Study of the Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo," S. Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), J.A. Pyle, 18,861-18,869. Homogeneous nucleation appears to play an important role during the early stages of a volcanic eruption in determining the average size of volcanic sulfate particles and their atmospheric residence time. By including heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 to HNO3, the model predicts substantial decreases in NO2 column, enhancements in ClO column, and a small reduction in global O3.

"Denitrification Mechanism of the Polar Winter Stratosphere by Major Volcanic Eruptions," S. Bekki (addr. immed. above.), 18,871-18,878. Used a one-dimensional model to investigate the uptake of HNO3 by volcanic sulfuric acid droplets. Anomalously large volcanic eruptions appear to have caused severe denitrification (irreversible removal of nitrogen species of the polar lower stratosphere) of the Arctic winter lower stratosphere. There is conflicting evidence for this mechanism in ice core nitrate records.

"Northern Middle-Latitude Ozone Profile Features and Trends Observed by SBUV and Umkehr, 1979-1990," J.J. DeLuisi (ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), C.L. Mateer et al., 18,901-18,908. Significant biases exist between these types of observations, but long-term variations and least squares linear regression trends agree remarkably well from 1979 to 1990. The annual ozone trend in the upper stratosphere in the northern mid-latitudes is » - 0.9%. A larger negative trend is seen in the lower stratosphere near 15 km. The good agreement between these two types of observation suggests that the combined ground-based and satellite approach could provide a valuable data base for long-term monitoring.

Item #d94oct34

Two items from ibid., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:

"Increase of Carbonyl Fluoride (COF2) in the Stratosphere and Its Contribution to the 1992 Budget of Inorganic Fluorine in the Upper Stratosphere," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000, Liège, Belg.), C.P. Rinsland et al., 16,737-16,743. Derived volume mixing ratio profiles of COF2 between 30·N and 54·S from infrared solar spectra recorded during the 1992 ATLAS 1 space shuttle mission. The increase in total inorganic F atom since a 1985 mission reflects the rise in anthropogenic fluorine compounds in the early to mid-1980s; the impact of natural sources of F is negligible.

"Possible Effects of CO2 Increase on the High-Speed Civil Transport Impact on Ozone," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), G. Visconti, 16,879-16,896. A 3-D radiative-dynamic model indicates that elevated CO2 alters lower stratospheric circulation so that the residence time of odd N is reduced by about 15%. Compensating tendencies among the ClO, NOx, and OH cycles result in a relatively small column ozone depletion.

Item #d94oct35

"Stratospheric Denitrification Due to Polar Aerosol Formation: Implications for a Future Atmosphere with Increased CO2," G. Pitari (addr. immed. above), L. Ricciardulli, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(17), 1791-1794, Aug. 15, 1994.

Studied the amount of stratospheric denitrification produced by nitric acid trihydrate aerosol formation using a photochemical 2-D model. If the polar vortex cools, as could be the case with an increase in CO2, denitrification may increase substantially.

Item #d94oct36

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), July 15, 1994:

"Ozone Depletion in the Arctic Stratosphere in Early 1993," N. Larsen (Danish Meteor. Inst., Lyngbyvej 100, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Den.), B. Knudsen et al., 1611-1614. Balloon-borne sensors detected an ozone decrease of about 1% per day; the column-integrated total ozone loss was about 12%. The measurements agree with satellite observations, and further document the 1993 springtime stratospheric ozone depletion as the most severe and long-lasting yet reported for the Arctic.

"Relationship Between Ozone and Temperature Trends in the Lower Stratosphere: Latitude and Seasonal Dependencies," J.P. McCormack (Lunar & Planetary Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), L.L. Hood, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), 1615-1618, July 15, 1994. Uses a 1-D radiative transfer model with fixed dynamical heating to characterize temperature response to ozone trends. Results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that observed lower stratospheric cooling trends are predominantly determined by reductions in radiative heating from decreased ozone.

Item #d94oct37

"UARS MLS O3 Soundings Compared with Lidar Measurements Using the Conservative Coordinates Reconstruction Technique," G. Redaelli (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), L.R. Lait et al., ibid., 21(14), 1535-1538, July 1, 1994.

Demonstrates a technique based on conservative properties of certain meteorological fields that may be useful for comparing data taken at different sites using different measurement techniques, as applied to the polar vortex.

Item #d94oct38

"Degradation of Trifluoroacetate in Oxic and Anoxic Sediments," P.T. Visscher (U.S. Geol. Survey, MS-465, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), C.W. Culbertson, R.S. Oremland, Nature, 369(6483), 729-731, June 30, 1994.

Concern about trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of the CFC substitutes HFCs and HCFCs, has focused on its deposition at the Earth's surface and possible increase to levels toxic to plants and soil microbes. This study shows that TFA can be rapidly degraded by microbes under anoxic and oxic conditions, implying that significant microbial sinks exist in nature for the elimination of TFA from the environment. (Although this study concludes that TFA is not an environmental hazard, a sentence was added to the end of the author's abstract by the journal editors that mistakenly gives the opposite impression, according to Chem. Eng. News, p. 7, July 4. The journal will print a correction to the paper.)

Item #d94oct39

"A Model for Studying the Composition and Chemical Effects of Stratospheric Aerosols," A. Tabazadeh (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles CA 90032), R.P. Turco, M.Z. Jacobson, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D6), 12,897-12,914, June 20, 1994.

In volcanically disturbed periods, changes in stratospheric aerosol composition can significantly alter the microphysics that leads to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds.

Item #d94oct40

"Photochemistry of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," B.C. Faust (Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), Environ. Sci. Technol., 28(5), 217A-222A, May 1994.

Reviews reactions including those that may occur in and on stratospheric cloud and aerosol particles.

Item #d94oct41

"Record Low Ozone at the South Pole in the Spring of 1993," D.J. Hofmann (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S.J. Oltmans et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(6), 421-424, Mar. 15, 1994.

Attributes the lowest-ever total ozone to the prolonged presence of polar stratospheric clouds at 18-23 km, sulfate aerosol from the Pinatubo eruption, and increased Cl levels.

Item #d94oct42

"The Influence of Climate Change and the Timing of Stratospheric Warmings on Arctic Ozone Depletion," J. Austin (Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell RG12 2SZ, UK), N. Butchart, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D1), 1127-1145, Jan. 20, 1994.

Specialized Papers

Item #d94oct43

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), Sep. 20, 1994:

"Effects of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Paramterization on Ozone Depletion Due to Stratospheric Aircraft in a Two-Dimensional Model," D.B. Considine (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R. Douglass, C.H. Jackman, 18,879-18,894.

"Profiles of Stratospheric Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) from Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 Infrared Solar Occultation Spectra," C.P. Rinsland (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), M.R. Gunson et al., 18,895-18,900.

Item #d94oct44

Two related items from Science, 265(5180), Sep. 23, 1994:

"Energetic Molecular Oxygen in the Atmosphere," T.G. Slanger (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., Menlo Pk. CA 94025), 1817-1818.

"The 'Ozone Deficit' Problem: O2(X, v ³ 26) + O(3P) from 226-nm Ozone Photodissociation," R.L. Miller (Dept. Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), A.G. Suits et al., 1831-1838.

Item #d94oct45

"Transport Characteristics of a Finite-Difference Dynamics Model Combined with a Spectral Transport Model of the Middle Atmosphere," T. Duncan, A. Fairlie et al., Monthly Weather Rev., 122(10), 2363-2375, Oct. 1994.

Item #d94oct46

"Ozone Observations at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy: Preliminary Results," M. Banzi (Regional Meteor. Off., Emilia Romagna, Bologna, Italy [e-mail:]), C. Carbonara, M. Cervino, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(20), 2231-2234, Oct. 1, 1994.

Item #d94oct47

Four items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:

"Computations of Diabatic Descent in the Stratospheric Polar Vortex," J.E. Rosenfield (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), P.A. Newman, M.R. Schoeberl, 16,677-16,689.

"Observations of Stratospheric Hydrogen Fluoride by Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)," M. Luo (Dept. Earth Sys. Sci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), R.J. Cicerone et al., 16,691-16,705.

"Ground-Based Microwave Observations of Ozone in the Upper Stratosphere and Mesosphere," B.J. Connor (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), D.E. Siskind et al., 16,757-16,770.

"Quasi-Horizontal Transport and Mixing in the Antarctic Stratosphere," P. Chen (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), J.R. Holton et al., 16,851-16,866.

Item #d94oct48

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett.,, 21(17), Aug. 15, 1994:

"Ozone Variations in the Scandinavian Sector of the Arctic During the AASE Campaign and 1989," K. Henriksen (Auroral Observ., Univ. TromsÀ, N-9037 TromsÀ, Norway), S.H.H. Larsen et al., 1775-1778.

"Temperature Dependent CH3OCl Formation in the Reaction Between CH3O2 and ClO," F. Helleis (M. Planck Inst. Chem., POB 3060, 55020 Mainz, Ger.), J. Crowley, G. Moortgat, 1795-1798.

Item #d94oct49

Four items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), July 20, 1994:

"On the Interannual Oscillations in the Northern Temperate Total Ozone," J.W. Krzyscin (Inst. Geophys., Polish Acad. Sci., 01-452 Warsaw, Ks. Janusza 64, Poland), 14,527-14,534.

"Ground-Based Measurements of Column Amounts of NO2 over Syowa Station, Antarctica," Y. Kondo (Solar Terres. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Honohara 3-13, Toyokawa, Aichi 442, Japan), W.A. Matthews et al., 14,535-14,548.

"High-Resolution Absorption Cross Sections of Chlorine Nitrate in thev2 Band Region Around 1292 cm-1 at Stratospheric Temperatures," J. Orphal (CNRS UPR 136, Univ. Paris VI et XI, Centre d'Orsay, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France), M. Morillon-Chapey, G. Guelachvili, 14,549-14,555.

"Stratospheric Ozone Variations in the Equatorial Region as Seen in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Data," M. Shiotani (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), F. Hasebe, 14,575-14,584.

Item #d94oct50

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), July 15, 1994:

"Column Abundance Measurements of Atmospheric Hydroxyl at 45·S," S.W. Wood (NIWA-Climate, Lauder, Private Bag 50061, Omakau, Central Otago, New Zealand), D.J. Keep et al., 1607-1610.

"A Study of Type I Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation," A. Tabazadeh (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Calif., 405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles CA 90024), R.P. Turco et al., 1619-1622.

Item #d94oct51

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D6), June 20, 1994:

"A New Numerical Model of the Middle Atmosphere. 2. Ozone and Related Species," R.R. Garcia (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), S. Solomon, 12,937-12,951.

"Polar Stratospheric Cloud Climatology Based on Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II Observations from 1978 to 1989," L.R. Poole (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), M.C. Pitts, 13,083-13,089.

Item #d94oct52

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(11), June 1, 1994:

"The Effect of the Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol on the HNO3 Column over Mauna Loa, Hawaii," S.J. David (Dept. Phys., Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), F.J. Murcray et al., 1003-1006.

"Comparison of Trend Analyses for Umkehr Data Using New and Previous Inversion Algorithms," G.C. Reinsel (Dept. Statistics, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), W.-K. Tam, L.H. Ying, 1007-1010. Overall trends are significantly negative, about -5% per decade.

Item #d94oct53

Four items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D5), May 20, 1994:

"Evaluation of the SKYHI General Circulation Model Using Aircraft N2O Measurements. 1. Polar Winter Stratospheric Meteorology and Tracer Morphology," S.E. Strahan (Appl. Res. Corp., Landover, Md.), J.D. Mahlman, 10,305-10,318.

". . .2. Tracer Variability and Diabatic Meridional Circulation," S.E. Strahan (addr. immed. above), J.D. Mahlman, 10,319-10,332.

"Validation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments I and II Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using Surface Radiometer Data," G.S. Kent (Sci. & Technol. Corp., 101 Research Dr., Hampton VA 23666), M.P. McCormick, P.-H. Wang, 10,333-10,339.

"Remote Photometry of the Atmosphere Using Microwave Breakdown," K. Papadopoulos (Dept. Phys., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), G.M. Milikh et al., 10,387-10,394. Proposes a method for continuous monitoring of the stratosphere at altitudes of 25-60 km.

Item #d94oct54

"Three-Dimensional Description of the Stratospheric Polar Vortex," M. Dameris (Inst. Phys. Atmos., DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, 82230 Wessling, Ger.), V. Grewe, Contrib. Atmos. Phys. (Beitr. Phys. Atmos.), 67(2), 157-160, May 1994.

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