February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE
Issue. J. Atmos. Sci., 50(20), approx. 325 pp.,
Oct. 15, 1994. Members of the Amer. Meteor. Soc. can receive
single copies for the special price of $10; $35 per copy for
nonmembers and institutions. Order from Amer. Meteor. Soc., 45
Beacon St., Boston MA 02108 (tel: 617-227-2425; fax:
Consists of 22 papers on early scientific results from the
Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, most of which relate to
stratospheric ozone depletion.
"Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ
Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, ClO, and BrO," P.O.
Wennberg (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., 12 Oxford St., Cambridge MA
02138), R.C. Cohen et al., Science, 266(5184),
398-404, Oct. 21, 1994.
Used aircraft measurements from the 1993 SPADE (Stratospheric
Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition). A single
catalytic cycle, in which the rate limiting step is the reaction
of HO2 with ozone, accounted for about half the total
stratospheric O3 removal. Halogen-radical chemistry was
responsible for about a third of photochemical removal of O3;
catalytic destruction by NO2 accounted for less than 20%. In the
air sampled, the rate of O3 removal inversely correlated with
total NOx loading, a result with implications for the impact of
stratospheric aircraft exhaust.
"Increase in Levels of Stratospheric Chlorine and Fluorine
Loading Between 1985 and 1992," M.R. Gunson (Jet Propulsion
Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), M.C. Abrams et al., Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(20), 2223-2226, Oct. 1, 1994.
The 1992 ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy)
experiment aboard the Space Shuttle measured the mixing ratios
for HCl and HF as surrogates for total Cl and F. Compared to 1985
data, HCl and HF increased 37% and 62%, respectively. The trend
in HCl is in good agreement with model predictions and
ground-based observations. The main source of the change is
attributable to anthropogenic CFCs and HCFCs.
items in J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), Sep. 20, 1994:
"A Two-Dimensional Modeling Study of the Volcanic
Eruption of Mount Pinatubo," S. Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), J.A.
Pyle, 18,861-18,869. Homogeneous nucleation appears to play an
important role during the early stages of a volcanic eruption in
determining the average size of volcanic sulfate particles and
their atmospheric residence time. By including heterogeneous
hydrolysis of N2O5 to HNO3, the model predicts substantial
decreases in NO2 column, enhancements in ClO column, and a small
reduction in global O3.
"Denitrification Mechanism of the Polar Winter
Stratosphere by Major Volcanic Eruptions," S. Bekki (addr.
immed. above.), 18,871-18,878. Used a one-dimensional model to
investigate the uptake of HNO3 by volcanic sulfuric acid
droplets. Anomalously large volcanic eruptions appear to have
caused severe denitrification (irreversible removal of nitrogen
species of the polar lower stratosphere) of the Arctic winter
lower stratosphere. There is conflicting evidence for this
mechanism in ice core nitrate records.
"Northern Middle-Latitude Ozone Profile Features and
Trends Observed by SBUV and Umkehr, 1979-1990," J.J. DeLuisi
(ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), C.L. Mateer et al.,
18,901-18,908. Significant biases exist between these types of
observations, but long-term variations and least squares linear
regression trends agree remarkably well from 1979 to 1990. The
annual ozone trend in the upper stratosphere in the northern
mid-latitudes is » - 0.9%. A larger negative trend is seen in
the lower stratosphere near 15 km. The good agreement between
these two types of observation suggests that the combined
ground-based and satellite approach could provide a valuable data
base for long-term monitoring.
from ibid., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:
"Increase of Carbonyl Fluoride (COF2) in the Stratosphere
and Its Contribution to the 1992 Budget of Inorganic Fluorine in
the Upper Stratosphere," R. Zander (Inst. Astrophys., Univ.
Liège, 5 Ave. Cointe, B-4000, Liège, Belg.), C.P. Rinsland et
al., 16,737-16,743. Derived volume mixing ratio profiles of COF2
between 30·N and 54·S from infrared solar spectra recorded
during the 1992 ATLAS 1 space shuttle mission. The increase in
total inorganic F atom since a 1985 mission reflects the rise in
anthropogenic fluorine compounds in the early to mid-1980s; the
impact of natural sources of F is negligible.
"Possible Effects of CO2 Increase on the High-Speed Civil
Transport Impact on Ozone," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis., Univ.
L'Aquila, via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), G.
Visconti, 16,879-16,896. A 3-D radiative-dynamic model indicates
that elevated CO2 alters lower stratospheric circulation so that
the residence time of odd N is reduced by about 15%. Compensating
tendencies among the ClO, NOx, and OH cycles result in a
relatively small column ozone depletion.
"Stratospheric Denitrification Due to Polar Aerosol
Formation: Implications for a Future Atmosphere with Increased
CO2," G. Pitari (addr. immed. above), L. Ricciardulli, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(17), 1791-1794, Aug. 15, 1994.
Studied the amount of stratospheric denitrification produced
by nitric acid trihydrate aerosol formation using a photochemical
2-D model. If the polar vortex cools, as could be the case with
an increase in CO2, denitrification may increase substantially.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), July 15, 1994:
"Ozone Depletion in the Arctic Stratosphere in Early
1993," N. Larsen (Danish Meteor. Inst., Lyngbyvej 100,
DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Den.), B. Knudsen et al., 1611-1614.
Balloon-borne sensors detected an ozone decrease of about 1% per
day; the column-integrated total ozone loss was about 12%. The
measurements agree with satellite observations, and further
document the 1993 springtime stratospheric ozone depletion as the
most severe and long-lasting yet reported for the Arctic.
"Relationship Between Ozone and Temperature Trends in the
Lower Stratosphere: Latitude and Seasonal Dependencies,"
J.P. McCormack (Lunar & Planetary Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tucson
AZ 85721), L.L. Hood, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15),
1615-1618, July 15, 1994. Uses a 1-D radiative transfer model
with fixed dynamical heating to characterize temperature response
to ozone trends. Results are generally consistent with the
hypothesis that observed lower stratospheric cooling trends are
predominantly determined by reductions in radiative heating from
"UARS MLS O3 Soundings Compared with Lidar Measurements
Using the Conservative Coordinates Reconstruction
Technique," G. Redaelli (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, via
Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), L.R. Lait et al., ibid., 21(14),
1535-1538, July 1, 1994.
Demonstrates a technique based on conservative properties of
certain meteorological fields that may be useful for comparing
data taken at different sites using different measurement
techniques, as applied to the polar vortex.
of Trifluoroacetate in Oxic and Anoxic Sediments," P.T.
Visscher (U.S. Geol. Survey, MS-465, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo
Pk. CA 94025), C.W. Culbertson, R.S. Oremland, Nature, 369(6483),
729-731, June 30, 1994.
Concern about trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of
the CFC substitutes HFCs and HCFCs, has focused on its deposition
at the Earth's surface and possible increase to levels toxic to
plants and soil microbes. This study shows that TFA can be
rapidly degraded by microbes under anoxic and oxic conditions,
implying that significant microbial sinks exist in nature for the
elimination of TFA from the environment. (Although this study
concludes that TFA is not an environmental hazard, a sentence was
added to the end of the author's abstract by the journal editors
that mistakenly gives the opposite impression, according to Chem.
Eng. News, p. 7, July 4. The journal will print a correction
to the paper.)
Model for Studying the Composition and Chemical Effects of
Stratospheric Aerosols," A. Tabazadeh (Dept. Atmos. Sci.,
Univ. Calif., Los Angeles CA 90032), R.P. Turco, M.Z. Jacobson, J.
Geophys. Res., 99(D6), 12,897-12,914, June 20, 1994.
In volcanically disturbed periods, changes in stratospheric
aerosol composition can significantly alter the microphysics that
leads to the formation of polar stratospheric clouds.
"Photochemistry of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," B.C.
Faust (Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), Environ. Sci. Technol., 28(5),
217A-222A, May 1994.
Reviews reactions including those that may occur in and on
stratospheric cloud and aerosol particles.
"Record Low Ozone at the South Pole in the Spring of
1993," D.J. Hofmann (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO
80303), S.J. Oltmans et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(6),
421-424, Mar. 15, 1994.
Attributes the lowest-ever total ozone to the prolonged
presence of polar stratospheric clouds at 18-23 km, sulfate
aerosol from the Pinatubo eruption, and increased Cl levels.
Influence of Climate Change and the Timing of Stratospheric
Warmings on Arctic Ozone Depletion," J. Austin (Meteor.
Off., London Rd., Bracknell RG12 2SZ, UK), N. Butchart, J.
Geophys. Res., 99(D1), 1127-1145, Jan. 20, 1994.
from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), Sep. 20, 1994:
"Effects of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Paramterization
on Ozone Depletion Due to Stratospheric Aircraft in a
Two-Dimensional Model," D.B. Considine (NASA-Goddard, Code
916, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R. Douglass, C.H. Jackman,
"Profiles of Stratospheric Chlorine Nitrate (ClONO2) from
Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy/ATLAS 1 Infrared Solar
Occultation Spectra," C.P. Rinsland (Atmos. Sci. Div.,
NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), M.R. Gunson et al.,
related items from Science, 265(5180), Sep. 23,
"Energetic Molecular Oxygen in the Atmosphere," T.G.
Slanger (Molecular Phys. Lab., SRI Intl., Menlo Pk. CA 94025),
"The 'Ozone Deficit' Problem: O2(X, v ³ 26) + O(3P)
from 226-nm Ozone Photodissociation," R.L. Miller (Dept.
Chem., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), A.G. Suits et al.,
"Transport Characteristics of a Finite-Difference Dynamics
Model Combined with a Spectral Transport Model of the Middle
Atmosphere," T. Duncan, A. Fairlie et al., Monthly
Weather Rev., 122(10), 2363-2375, Oct. 1994.
"Ozone Observations at San Pietro Capofiume, Italy:
Preliminary Results," M. Banzi (Regional Meteor. Off.,
Emilia Romagna, Bologna, Italy [e-mail:
email@example.com]), C. Carbonara, M. Cervino, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(20), 2231-2234, Oct. 1, 1994.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D8), Aug. 20, 1994:
"Computations of Diabatic Descent in the Stratospheric
Polar Vortex," J.E. Rosenfield (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD
20771), P.A. Newman, M.R. Schoeberl, 16,677-16,689.
"Observations of Stratospheric Hydrogen Fluoride by
Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE)," M. Luo (Dept. Earth
Sys. Sci., Univ. Calif., Irvine CA 92717), R.J. Cicerone et al.,
"Ground-Based Microwave Observations of Ozone in the
Upper Stratosphere and Mesosphere," B.J. Connor (Atmos. Sci.
Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), D.E. Siskind et al.,
"Quasi-Horizontal Transport and Mixing in the Antarctic
Stratosphere," P. Chen (Dept. Atmos. Sci., AK-40, Univ.
Washington, Seattle WA 98195), J.R. Holton et al., 16,851-16,866.
from Geophys. Res. Lett.,, 21(17), Aug. 15, 1994:
"Ozone Variations in the Scandinavian Sector of the
Arctic During the AASE Campaign and 1989," K. Henriksen
(Auroral Observ., Univ. TromsÀ, N-9037 TromsÀ, Norway), S.H.H.
Larsen et al., 1775-1778.
"Temperature Dependent CH3OCl Formation in the Reaction
Between CH3O2 and ClO," F. Helleis (M. Planck Inst. Chem.,
POB 3060, 55020 Mainz, Ger.), J. Crowley, G. Moortgat, 1795-1798.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), July 20, 1994:
"On the Interannual Oscillations in the Northern
Temperate Total Ozone," J.W. Krzyscin (Inst. Geophys.,
Polish Acad. Sci., 01-452 Warsaw, Ks. Janusza 64, Poland),
"Ground-Based Measurements of Column Amounts of NO2 over
Syowa Station, Antarctica," Y. Kondo (Solar Terres. Environ.
Lab., Nagoya Univ., Honohara 3-13, Toyokawa, Aichi 442, Japan),
W.A. Matthews et al., 14,535-14,548.
"High-Resolution Absorption Cross Sections of Chlorine
Nitrate in thev2 Band Region Around 1292 cm-1 at
Stratospheric Temperatures," J. Orphal (CNRS UPR 136, Univ.
Paris VI et XI, Centre d'Orsay, F-91405 Orsay Cedex, France), M.
Morillon-Chapey, G. Guelachvili, 14,549-14,555.
"Stratospheric Ozone Variations in the Equatorial Region
as Seen in Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment Data,"
M. Shiotani (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), F. Hasebe,
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), July 15, 1994:
"Column Abundance Measurements of Atmospheric Hydroxyl at
45·S," S.W. Wood (NIWA-Climate, Lauder, Private Bag 50061,
Omakau, Central Otago, New Zealand), D.J. Keep et al., 1607-1610.
"A Study of Type I Polar Stratospheric Cloud
Formation," A. Tabazadeh (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Calif.,
405 Hilgard Ave., Los Angeles CA 90024), R.P. Turco et al.,
from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D6), June 20, 1994:
"A New Numerical Model of the Middle Atmosphere. 2. Ozone
and Related Species," R.R. Garcia (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder
CO 80307), S. Solomon, 12,937-12,951.
"Polar Stratospheric Cloud Climatology Based on
Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement II Observations from 1978 to
1989," L.R. Poole (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton
VA 23665), M.C. Pitts, 13,083-13,089.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(11), June 1, 1994:
"The Effect of the Mt. Pinatubo Aerosol on the HNO3
Column over Mauna Loa, Hawaii," S.J. David (Dept. Phys.,
Univ. Denver, Denver CO 80208), F.J. Murcray et al., 1003-1006.
"Comparison of Trend Analyses for Umkehr Data Using New
and Previous Inversion Algorithms," G.C. Reinsel (Dept.
Statistics, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), W.-K. Tam, L.H.
Ying, 1007-1010. Overall trends are significantly negative, about
-5% per decade.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D5), May 20, 1994:
"Evaluation of the SKYHI General Circulation Model Using
Aircraft N2O Measurements. 1. Polar Winter Stratospheric
Meteorology and Tracer Morphology," S.E. Strahan (Appl. Res.
Corp., Landover, Md.), J.D. Mahlman, 10,305-10,318.
". . .2. Tracer Variability and Diabatic Meridional
Circulation," S.E. Strahan (addr. immed. above), J.D.
"Validation of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments
I and II Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth Measurements Using
Surface Radiometer Data," G.S. Kent (Sci. & Technol.
Corp., 101 Research Dr., Hampton VA 23666), M.P. McCormick, P.-H.
"Remote Photometry of the Atmosphere Using Microwave
Breakdown," K. Papadopoulos (Dept. Phys., Univ. Maryland,
College Pk. MD 20742), G.M. Milikh et al., 10,387-10,394.
Proposes a method for continuous monitoring of the stratosphere
at altitudes of 25-60 km.
"Three-Dimensional Description of the Stratospheric Polar
Vortex," M. Dameris (Inst. Phys. Atmos., DLR
Oberpfaffenhofen, 82230 Wessling, Ger.), V. Grewe, Contrib.
Atmos. Phys. (Beitr. Phys. Atmos.), 67(2),
157-160, May 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations