February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 11-12, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE: ECOSYSTEMS
Impact of a 2 x CO2 Climate on Lightning-Caused Fires," C.
Price (Global Clim. Res. Div., L-262, Lawrence Livermore Natl.
Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), D. Rind, J. Clim., 7(10),
1484-1494, Oct. 1994.
Presents two models (one for seasonal variations and one for
interannual variations) relating the frequency of fires and the
area burned to effective precipitation and frequency of
thunderstorms. For CO2 doubling, the annual mean number of fires
in the U.S., and the area burned, would increase by 44% and 78%
respectively. Globally, the largest increase in fires is expected
in untouched tropical ecosystems, where few natural fires now
Climate Change and Biodiversity in Forests of the Southern United
States," M.S. Devall (USDA Forest Serv., 701 Loyola Ave.,
Rm. T-10210, New Orleans LA 70113), B.R. Parresol, World
Resour. Rev., 6(3), 376-394, Sep. 1994.
Climate change could affect biodiversity at all levels (from
species to landscape) as well as the interactions of organisms,
and could cause other modifications that few scientists so far
have considered. Species will relocate northward, and the numbers
of threatened, endangered and extinct species will increase.
Wetland vegetation will be especially at risk.
Effects on Mountain Plants," G. Grabherr (Dept. Vegetation
Ecol., Univ. Vienna, POB 285, A1091 Vienna, Austria), M.
Gottfried, H. Pauli, Nature, 369(6480), 448, June
Compares results of a recent survey of cover and abundance of
vascular plant species above 3,000 meters in the central Alps
with historical data. There is no doubt that even moderate
warming induces upward migration, and that this process is
underway; results suggest that global warming is already having a
significant effect on alpine plant ecology.
Terrestrial Vegetation 'Prediction': The Use and Abuse of Climate
and Application Models," A. Henderson-Sellers (Clim. Impacts
Ctr., Macquarie Univ., N. Ryde, Sydney NSW 2109, Australia), Prog.
Phys. Geog., 18(2), 209-246, June 1994.
Examines the Holdridge life-zone classification scheme, an
impacts model which is being applied to output from global
climate models. Very different conclusions can be drawn about
future distributions of continental vegetation, depending on the
version of the model, the input and the assessment procedure
Change and the British Scene," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Animal
& Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield S10 2UQ,
UK), F.I. Woodward, J. Ecol., 82, 391-397, June
To predict the responses of alien species to global change, it
is critical to identify the fundamental processes controlling
their distribution. Considers how localized topographies, water
availability, and soil types might modify the invasive potential
of these species in the U.K.
Derivation of the Observed Relationship Between Net Primary
Production [NPP] and Mean Annual Air Temperature," G.B.
Bonan (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Tellus, 45B(5),
397-408, Nov. 1993.
Presents a forest carbon exchange model that may provide a
means of integrating terrestrial carbon flux into global climate
from Oecologia, 96(4), 1993:
"Effects of Temperature Elevation on a Field Population
of Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on
Spitsbergen," A.T. Strathdee (Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ.
Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK), J.S. Bale et al.,
457-465. A field study indicates that the life-cycle of this
aphid is well suited to exploit higher summer temperatures, that
the annual success of local populations are sensitive to small
changes in temperature, and that it is living at the limits of
its thermal range at Ny Ålesund. (See "Insects That Carry a
Global Warming," New Scientist, pp. 32-35, Apr.
"Climate Change and the Short-Term Impact of Feral House
Mice at the Sub-Antarctic Prince Edward Islands," S.L. Chown
(Dept. Entomol., Univ. Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, S. Africa), V.R.
Smith, 508-516. This field study supports the hypotheses of
global warming effects on mouse-plant-invertebrate interactions,
provides evidence for the first reported case of
predator-mediated speciation, and shows that the interaction of
human-induced changes operating at different scales may have
profound consequences for local systems.
Situ Mineralization of Nitrogen and Phosphorus of Arctic
Soils After Perturbations Simulating Climate Change," S.
Jonasson (Bot. Inst., Univ. Copenhagen, Oster Farimagsgade 2D,
DK-1353 Copenhagen K, Den.), M. Havström et al., ibid., 95(2),
Suggests that soil temperature increases of up to 2·C have
only small effects on net mineralization in at least two tundra
soils. A further soil temperature increase of up to 4-5·C may
enhance decomposition and gross mineralization.
Possible Mechanism Relating Increased Soil Temperature to Forest
Decline," G.H. Tomlinson (920 Perrot Blvd., Ile-Perrot PQ
J7V 3K1, Can.), Water, Air & Soil Pollut., 66,
Leaching of nutrient cations in soils by acid deposition is
associated with periods of increased temperature and reduced
rainfall. This paper discusses the relevance of earlier studies
on the influence of temperature, when considered in relation to
more recent findings such as the impacts of increased temperature
and drought in Hawaii resulting from the El Niño/Southern
Oscillation. The unusual periods of increased temperature and
drought that have occurred in other localized areas may have led
to the decline symptoms recently observed; this possibility
should be investigated in view of the threat of global warming.
Changes in Semiarid Pinyon-Juniper Woodlands: Response to
Climate, Fire, and Human Activities in the US Great Basin,"
R.F. Miller (Northern Great Basin Experimental Range, HC 71 4.51
Hwy. 205, Burns OR 97720), P.E. Wigand, BioScience, 44(7),
465-474, July-Aug. 1994.
Allocation of Montane and Desert Ponderosa Pine: An Analog for
Response to Climate Change," R.M. Callaway, E.H. DeLucia
(Plant Biol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), W.H. Schlesinger, Ecology, 75(5),
1474-1481, July 1994.
Responses of Four Sub-Arctic Dwarf Shrubs to Simulated
Environmental Change," A.N. Parsons (Natural Resour. Ecol.
Lab., Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins CO 80523), J.M. Welker
et al., J. Ecol.,82, 307-318, June 1994.
Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Vegetative Responses of Dryas
octopetala to Temperature and Water Manipulations in a High
Arctic Polar Semi-Desert, Svalbard," J.M. Welker (addr.
immed. above), P.A. Wookey et al., Oecologia, 95(4),
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations