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Item #d94nov119

Two items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(10), Oct. 1994:

"Modelling Forest Response to Increasing CO2 Concentration Under Nutrient-Limited Conditions," M.U.F. Kirschbaum (Div. Forestry, CSIRO, POB 4008, Queen Victoria Terr., Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia), D.A. King et al., 1081-1099. Further testing of an analytical model revealed its key assumptions and allowed for more confident predictions. Conclusions about the CO2 sensitivity of production were strongly influenced by assumptions about the relationship between foliar and heartwood nitrogen concentrations. Trees growing under N-limited conditions can respond to increasing CO2 with considerable growth increases.

"Insects and Fungi on a C3 Sedge and a C4 Grass Exposed to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations in Open-Top Chambers in the Field," G.B. Thompson (Smithsonian Environ. Res. Ctr., POB 28, Edgewater MD 21037), B.G. Drake, 1161-1167. Studied plant-fungi and plant-insect interactions in an emergent marsh in the Chesapeake Bay. The severity of fungal infection increased or decreased with elevated atmospheric CO2 depending on nitrogen concentration and water content. The number of plants infected with insects decreased, as did the amount of tissue eaten by insects.

Item #d94nov120

"Consequences of Growth at Two Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Two Temperatures for Leaf Gas Exchange in Pascopyrum smithii (C3) and Bouteloua gracilis (C4)," J.A. Morgan (ARS, USDA, Ft. Collins CO 80526), H.W. Hunt et al., ibid., 17(9), 1023-1033, Sep. 1994.

Both important grass species of the short-grass steppe showed higher leaf CO2 assimilation rates with increased CO2 concentration. However, the photosynthetic capacity of P. smithii leaves was reduced when grown at high CO2 concentration, and severely reduced when grown at elevated temperatures.

Item #d94nov121

"Trends in Stomatal Density and 13C/12C Ratios of Pinus flexilis Needles During Last Glacial-Interglacial Cycle," P.K. Van de Water, S.W. Leavitt, J.L. Betancourt (USGS, 1675 W. Anklam Rd., Tucson AZ 85745), Science, 264(5156), 239-242, Apr. 8, 1994.

Measurements, at sites selected to isolate the effects of changing atmospheric CO2 levels, reveal shifts in plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000 years. The Ù13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

Item #d94nov122

"Mid-Season Gas Exchange of an Alpine Grassland Under Elevated CO2," M.W. Diemer (Bot. Inst. Univ. Basel, Schönbeinstr. 6, CH-4056 Basel, Switz.), Oecologia, 98(3-4), 429-435, 1994.

Measured ecosystem net CO2 uptake, evapotranspiration and nighttime CO2 efflux in open-top chambers. Atmospheric nutrient input may induce equal or greater effects on gas exchange than increased CO2 concentration.

Item #d94nov123

"Compensatory Responses of CO2 Exchange and Biomass Allocation and Their Effects on the Relative Growth Rate of Ponderosa Pine in Different CO2 and Temperature Regimes," R.M. Callaway (Plant Biol., Univ. Illinois, Urbana IL 61801), E.H. DeLucia et al., ibid., 98(2), 159-166, 1994.

After two months' exposure of seedlings to high CO2, the effects of CO2 fertilization and temperature on plant growth were determined by complex shifts in biomass allocation and gas exchange that may maintain constant growth rates as temperatures and CO2 concentrations change. All the responses must be considered together when predicting the potential of forests to sequester larger amounts of carbon.

Item #d94nov124

"Effects of CO2 Enrichment on Whole-Plant Carbon Budget of Seedlings of Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum in Low Irradiance," C.D. Reid (ARS, USDA, N. Carolina State Univ., 1509 Varsity Dr., Raleigh NC 27606), B.R. Strain, ibid., 98(1), 31-39, 1994.

The shade-tolerant, co-dominant beech and sugar maple seedlings differed in their responses, demonstrating the importance of direct effects of CO2 enrichment when predicting potential change in species distribution with global climate change.

Item #d94nov125

"Genotype-Specific Effects of Elevated CO2 on Fecundity in Wild Radish (Raphanus raphanistrum)," P.S. Curtis (Dept. Plant Biol., 1735 Neil Ave., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), A.A. Snow, A.S. Miller, ibid., 97(1), 100-105, 1994.

Although results did not show a significant genotype-CO2 interaction, they did provide evidence for heritable responses to elevated CO2. In a subset of plants, the magnitude of CO2 effects on fecundity was also influenced by soil fertility.

Item #d94nov126

"CO2-Induced Growth Enhancements of Co-Occurring Tree Species Decline at Different Rates," F.A. Bazzaz (Dept. Organismic & Evol. Biol., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02128), S.L. Miao, P.M. Wayne, ibid., 96(4), 478-482, 1993.

Greenhouse studies with six species show that CO2-induced enhancements in temperate forest productivity may not be sustained for long periods of time. Species' differential growth responses to elevated CO2 may indirectly influence forest productivity via long-term species compositional changes.

Item #d94nov127

"Effects of Elevated CO2 on Growth and Carbon/Nutrient Balance in the Deciduous Woody Shrub Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (Lauraceae)," M.L. Cipollini (Dept. Zool., Univ. Florida, 223 Bartram Hall, Gainesville FL 32611), B.G. Drake, D. Whigham, ibid., 96(3), 339-346, 1993.

Nitrogen limitation may constrain plants to allocate carbohydrates produced in response to elevated CO2 primarily to storage and below-ground growth, rather than to increased stem and leaf growth. Predicts future changes in carbon-nutrient balance induced by elevated CO2.

Item #d94nov128

Two items from ibid., 95(4), 1993:

"Increased CO2 and Nutrient Status Changes Affect Phytomass and the Production of Plant Defensive Secondary Chemicals in Salix myrsinifolia (Salisb.)," R. Julkunen-Tiitto (Dept. Biol., Univ. Joensuu, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland), J. Tahvanainen, J. Silvola, 495-498. Willow defense against generalist herbivores is moderately decreased by enhanced CO2.

"Effects of Nitrogen Supply and Elevated Carbon Dioxide on Construction Cost in Leaves of Pinus taeda (L.) Seedlings," K.L. Griffin (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27708), R.B. Thomas, B.R. Strain, 575-580. Increasing ambient CO2 partial pressure from 35 to 65 Pa increased loblolly pine seedling growth only when soil nitrogen was high.

Specialized Papers

Item #d94nov129

Three items from Plant, Cell & Environ., 17(8), Aug. 1994:

"Regulation of the Expression of Photosynthetic Nuclear Genes by CO2 Is Mimicked by Regulation by Carbohydrates: A Mechanism for the Acclimation of Photosynthesis to High CO2?" J.-J. Van Oosten (Hort. Res. Intl., Worthing Rd., W. Sussex BN17 6LP, UK), D. Wilkins, R.T. Besford, 913-923.

"Gas Exchange and Growth Responses to Elevated CO2 and Light Levels in the CAM Species Opuntia ficus-indica," M. Cui, P.S. Nobel (Lab. Biomed. & Environ. Sci., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles CA 90024), 935-944.

"Changes in Net Photosynthesis and Growth of Pinus eldarica Seedlings in Response to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment," R.L. Garcia (U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Broadway, Phoenix AZ 85040), S.B. Idso et al., 971-978.

Item #d94nov130

"The Effect of Growth at Elevated CO2 Concentrations on Photosynthesis in Wheat," I.F. McKee (Dept. Biol., Univ. Essex, Wivenhoe Pk., Colchester CO4 3SQ, UK), ibid., 17(7), 853-859, July 1994.

Item #d94nov131

Two items from Ecology, 75(4), June 1994:

"Elevated CO2 and Temperature Alter Recruitment and Size Hierarchies in C3 and C4 Annuals," S.R. Morse, F.A. Bazzaz (Biol. Lab., 16 Divinity Ave., Harvard Univ., Cambridge MA 02138), 966-975.

"Increasing CO2: Comparative Responses of the C4 Grass Schizachyrium and Grassland Invader Prosopis," H.W. Polley (ARS, USDA, Temple TX 76502), H.B. Johnson, H.S. Mayeux, 976-988.

Item #d94nov132

"CO2 Alters Water Use, Carbon Gain, and Yield for the Dominant Species in a Natural Grassland," R.B. Jackson (Dept. Biol. Sci., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), O.E. Sala et al., Oecologia, 98(3-4), 257-262, 1994.

Item #d94nov133

Two items from ibid., 98(2), 1994:

"Effects of CO2-Mediated Changes in Paper Birch and White Pine Chemistry on Gypsy Moth Performance," S.K. Roth (Dept. Entomol., 1630 Linden Dr., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), R.L. Lindroth, 133-138.

"The Interaction Between CO2 and Plant Nutrition: Comments on a Paper by Coleman, McConnaughay and Bazzaz," G.I. Ågren (Dept. Ecol. & Environ. Res., Swed. Univ. Agric. Sci., Box 7072, S-750 07 Uppsala, Swed.), 239-240.

Item #d94nov134

"Loblolly Pine Grown Under Elevated CO2 Affects Early Instar Pine Sawfly Performance," R.S. Williams (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208), D.E. Lincoln, R.B. Thomas, ibid., 98(1), 64-71, 1994.

Item #d94nov135

"Elevated CO2 and Drought Alter Tissue Water Relations of Birch (Betula populifolia Marsh.) Seedlings," S.R. Morse (Coll. of the Atlantic, 105 Eden St., Bar Harbor ME 04609), P. Wayne et al., ibid., 95(4), 599-602, 1993.

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