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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94nov112

"Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, ClO, and BrO," P.O. Wennberg (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., 12 Oxford St., Cambridge MA 02138), R.C. Cohen et al., Science, 266(5184), 398-404, Oct. 21, 1994.

Used aircraft measurements from the 1993 SPADE (Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition). A single catalytic cycle, in which the rate limiting step is the reaction of HO2 with ozone, accounted for about half the total stratospheric O3 removal. Halogen-radical chemistry was responsible for about a third of photochemical removal of O3; catalytic destruction by NO2 accounted for less than 20%. In the air sampled, the rate of O3 removal inversely correlated with total NOx loading, a result with implications for the impact of stratospheric aircraft exhaust.

Item #d94nov113

"Evolution of the Concentrations of Trace Species in an Aircraft Plume: Trajectory Study," M.Y. Danilin (Atmos. & Environ. Res. Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), A. Ebel et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), 18,951-18,972, Sep. 20, 1994.

Proposed a box model of the principal physical and chemical processes inside a plume. Model results agreed well with experimental data for NO, NO2, HNO3, HNO2 and SO2. Local ozone response is between 0.6% at 200 mb and -0.1% at 100 mb.

Item #d94nov114

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(18), Sep. 1, 1994:

"Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Aero Engines," P. Wiesen (Phys. Chem., Fachbereich 9, Bergische Univ., D-42097 Wuppertal, Ger.), J. Kleffmann et al., 2027-2030. Calculations indicate that at present air traffic does not contribute significantly to the global budgets of these compounds.

"Impact of Present Aircraft Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides on Tropospheric Ozone and Climate Forcing," D.A. Hauglustaine (Serv. Aéron. CNRS, Univ. Paris VI, 4, pl. Jussieu, Boîte 102, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France), C. Granier et al., 2031-2034. Model results confirm that nitrogen oxide in situ emissions are more efficient in producing ozone than are surface emissions. The ozone increase due to aircraft nitrogen oxide emissions reaches more than 7% during summer in the upper troposphere at northern mid-latitudes. Radiative forcing may play a significant role in anthropogenic forcing on Northern Hemisphere climate.

Item #d94nov115

"Possible Effects of CO2 Increase on the High-Speed Civil Transport Impact on Ozone," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, via Vetoio, 67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), G. Visconti, 16,879-16,896. A 3-D radiative-dynamic model indicates that elevated CO2 alters lower stratospheric circulation so that the residence time of odd N is reduced by about 15%. Compensating tendencies among the ClO, NOx, and OH cycles result in a relatively small column ozone depletion.

Item #d94nov116

"The Impact of High Altitude Aircraft on the Ozone Layer in the Stratosphere," X.X. Tie (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), G. Brasseur et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 18(2), 103-128, Feb. 1994.

Used a coupled chemical, dynamical, radiative and microphysical two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere for the investigation, and determined that significant ozone depletion can result from the formation of polar stratospheric clouds by H2O and HNO3 from aircraft engines.

Specialized Papers

Item #d94nov117

"Effects of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Paramterization on Ozone Depletion Due to Stratospheric Aircraft in a Two-Dimensional Model," D.B. Considine (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R. Douglass, C.H. Jackman, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9), 18,879-18,894, Sep. 20, 1994.

Item #d94nov118

"Transport of Exhaust Products in the Near Trail of a Jet Engine Under Atmospheric Conditions," B. Kärcher (Bioklimatol. & Immissionsforsch., Univ. München, Hohenbacherstr. 22, D-85354 Freising, Ger.), ibid., 99(D7), 14,509-14,517, July 20, 1994.

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