February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 11-12, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... CARBON CYCLE
Primary Productivity in the Terrestrial Biosphere: The
Application of a Global Model," J.A. Foley (CPEP, Inst.
Environ. Studies, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), J.
Geophys. Res., 99(D10), 20,773-20,783, Oct. 20, 1994.
Describes DEMETER, a process-based model designed to provide a
functional and structural description of the terrestrial
biosphere. A simulation for modern climate indicates a net
primary productivity of 62.1 Gt/yr and vegetation biomass of
800.6 Gt C.
and Biological Controls on Carbon Cycling in the Equatorial
Pacific," J.W. Murray (Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Washington,
Seattle WA 98195), R.T. Barber et al., Science, 266(5182),
58-65, Oct. 7, 1994.
A study of the chemistry and biology of the equatorial Pacific
from 170· to 95· W establishes El Niño events as the main
source of interannual variability in carbon concentration and
Flux of Dissolved Organic Carbon [DOC] from the Euphotic Zone in
the Northwestern Sargasso Sea," C.A. Carlson (Horn Pt.
Environ. Lab., Univ. Maryland, POB 775, Cambridge MD 21613), H.W.
Ducklow, A.F. Michaels, Nature, 371(6496), 405-408,
Sep. 29, 1994.
Measurements of DOC near Bermuda support this component of
oceanic carbon as an important and dynamic part of the ocean
carbon cycle, and account for the annual vertical carbon budget
for this site within a factor of two. The observations should
apply to other temperate, sub-polar and continental-shelf regions
that exhibit convective mixing and vernal restratification.
Demonstration of Coupling of Heat and Matter Fluxes at a
Gas-Water Interface," L.F. Phillips (Chem. Dept., Univ.
Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9),
18,577-18,584, Sep. 20, 1994.
Shows the importance of coupling and the role of liquid
surface temperature in controlling the magnitude and sometimes
the direction of the gas flux. The data may be the basis of a
practical method for determining air-sea fluxes of CO2 and other
"Methane Emissions from Rice Fields: Effect of Soil
Properties," R.L. Sass (Dept. Ecol. & Evol. Biol., Rice
Univ., POB 1892, Houston TX 77251), F.M. Fisher et al., Global
Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(2), 135-140, June 1994.
Seasonal methane emissions correlate directly with the percent
sand in soil at a Texas site, ranging from 15.1 to 36.3 g m-2
along a transect with sand content ranging from 18.8% to 32.5%.
Dioxide Supersaturation in the Surface Waters of Lakes,"
J.J. Cole (Inst. Ecosys. Studies, Cary Arboretum, Millbrook NY
12545), N.F. Caraco et al., Science, 265(5178),
1568-1570, Sep. 9, 1994.
Data from 1835 lakes showed that nearly 90% had CO2
concentrations an average of threefold greater than the
surrounding atmosphere. Lakes are sources, not sinks, of
atmospheric CO, and they are a small but potentially important
conduit for carbon from terrestrial sources to the atmospheric
from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(3), Sep. 1994:
"Modeling Carbon Biogeochemistry in Agricultural
Soils," C. Li (Inst. Study Earth, Oceans & Space, Univ.
New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824), S. Frolking, R. Harriss,
237-254. A model of C and N soil dynamics, combined with a plant
growth submodel and agricultural practices, showed that the
largest C sequestration occurred with manure addition. Generally,
increased N fertilization enhanced C sequestration, and reduced
tillage increased soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Long-term
simulations revealed the factors that would enhance C
sequestration, and agricultural practices with the greatest
potential for increasing soil C content.
"CARAIB: A Global Model of Terrestrial Biological
Productivity," P. Warnant (Inst. Astrophys., Univ. Liège, 5
ave. Cointe, B-4000 Liège, Belg.), L. François, et al.,
255-270. Used mechanistic models to predict net primary
productivity (NPP) on a global scale as a first step toward the
modeling of CO2 assimilation by continental vegetation. Tests the
model's sensitivity to the diurnal cycle and shows that ignoring
this cycle may introduce important errors in NPP estimates.
"Climatic, Edaphic and Biotic Controls over Storage and
Turnover of Carbon in Soils," D.S. Schimel (NCAR, POB 3000,
Boulder CO 80307), B.H. Braswell et al., 279-293. Applied the
Century ecosystem model to forest and grassland sites to examine
large-scale controls over soil carbon, and estimated the effect
of changing temperature on soil organic carbon. Inclusion of the
N cycle is important for predictions of terrestrial carbon
balance, and soil carbon loss rates can be high if climate change
results in drying of organic soils.
"Simple Global Carbon Model: The Atmosphere-Terrestrial
Biosphere-Ocean Interaction," O-Y. Kwon (Ctr. Global &
Regional Environ. Res., Univ. Iowa, Iowa City IA 52242), J.L.
Schnoor, 295-305. Developed a model that includes fertilization
and temperature effects, and calculated time-variable oceanic
carbon uptake, for various scenarios. If CO2 emissions from
fossil fuel combustion continue at the present rate, doubling may
occur in 2060. Resulting warming would be responsible for 40 Gt
carbon accumulation in land biota and 7 Gt in oceans, 88 Gt
depletion from soil, and a 19 ppm increase in atmospheric CO2.
"Modeling the Global Carbon Cycle: Nitrogen Fertilization of
the Terrestrial Biosphere and the 'Missing' CO2 Link,"
R.J.M. Hudson (Inst. Marine Sci., Univ. California, Santa Cruz CA
95064), S.A. Gherini, R.A. Goldstein, Global Biogeochem.
Cycles, 8(3), 307-333, Sep. 1994.
Describes and applies GLOCO, a global carbon cycle model with
relatively detailed treatment of oceanic and terrestrial
processes and anthropogenic activities. Confirms previous
suggestions that because temperate and boreal forests are
nitrogen limited, CO2 fertilization is less than predicted by
short-term CO2 response factors. Fertilization by anthropogenic
nitrogen emissions probably constitutes a significant portion of
the "missing" CO2 sink.
Simple Global Carbon-Cycle Model," K. Kamiuto (Dept.
Production Sys. Eng., Oita Univ., Dannoharu 700, Oita 870-11,
Jap.) Energy, 19(8), 825-829, Aug. 1994.
The model, with three main reservoirs (atmosphere, biosphere,
oceans), reconstructed the time history of CO2 emission rates due
to deforestation and changing land use during the past 200 years,
and estimated CO2 transfer rates among the reservoirs in 1980.
The history has two stages with a turning point in 1875. Land
biota act as a large sink of atmospheric CO2, thus the problem of
the missing sink does not exist.
"Photosynthetic Climate in Selected Regions During the
Northern Hemisphere Growing Season," R.T. Pinker (Dept.
Meteor., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), I. Laszlo, F.
Miskolczi, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(2),
117-125, June 1994.
Derives from satellite data the first consistent information
on the temporal and spatial variability in photosynthetically
active radiation on a continental scale during a growing season.
Such information can be used to develop new parameterizations of
net primary productivity and evapotranspiration.
Carbon Budget of the Spanish Forests," J.C.R. Murillo (CSIC,
C/Serrano 115 Dpdo. 28006 Madrid, Spain), Biogeochem., 25(3),
Describes a model that calculates anthropogenic CO2 emissions
from perturbed forests, based on timber production, wildfire
statistics and physicochemical parameters for Spanish forests,
including soils. Emissions increased from 5.3 x 106 t C in 1970
to 10.6 x 106 t C in 1990. Compares and discusses the methods
used to calculate biospheric carbon balance and their results.
Carbon Storage at the LGM [Last Glacial Maximum]," M.I. Bird
(Res. Sch. Earth Sci., Australian Natl. Univ., Canberra ACT 0200,
Australia), J. Lloyd, G.D. Farquhar, Nature, 371(6498),
566, Oct. 13, 1994.
Contribution to the Global Bomb Radiocarbon Inventory: Model
Versus Observation," W.S. Broecker (Lamont-Doherty Earth
Observ., Palisades NY 10964), T.-H. Peng, Global Biogeochem.
Cycles, 8(3), 377-384, Sep. 1994.
from Nature, 370(6490), Aug. 18, 1994:
"Kitty Litter for Carbon Control," C. Lee, 503-504.
"Sorptive Preservation of Labile Organic Matter in Marine
Sediments," R.G. Keil (Sch. Oceanog., WB-10, Univ.
Washington, Seattle WA 98195), D.B. Montluçon et al., 549-552.
Shows that sorption of organic matter to mineral surfaces in
marine sediments stabilizes the component molecules.
Dioxide Exchange Between an Undisturbed Old-Growth Temperate
Forest and the Atmosphere," D.Y. Hollinger (USDA Forest
Serv., POB 640, Durham NH 03824), F.M. Kelliher et al., Ecology, 75(1),
134-150, Jan. 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations