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Item #d94may7

"Rising Temperatures in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean over the Past 35 Years," G. Parrilla (Inst. Español de Oceanografia, Corazón de Maria 8, 28002 Madrid, Spain), A. Lavín et al., Nature, 369(6475), 48-51, May 5, 1994.

Comparison of measurements made along the 24°N parallel with measurements made in 1981 and 1957 indicate that the waters between 800 and 2,500 meters depth have consistently warmed over the past 35 years. The maximum warming, found at 1,100 meters, is occurring at rate of 1° C per century. The trend is broadly consistent with model predictions of climate change, but differs by occurring in the interior ocean rather than at the surface, as predicted by models.

Item #d94may8

"Linear Trends of Temperature at Intermediate and Deep Layers of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific Oceans: 1957-1981," J.I. Antonov (State Hydrol. Inst., St. Petersburg, Russia), J. Clim., 6(10), 1928-1942, Oct. 1993.

All available ocean temperature data for the depth range 300 to 3000 meters at World Data Center B (Obninsk, Russia) were statistically analyzed for the period. For the upper layer to about 500 meters depth, seawater temperature declined on average in both oceans. However, a rise of about 0.1°C per 25 years was observed in the 800 to 2500 meter layer of the North Atlantic.

Item #d94may9

"Coral Bleaching and Ocean 'Hot Spots,'" T.J. Goreau (Global Coral Reef Alliance, 324 N. Bedford Rd., Chappaqua NY 10514), R.L. Hayes, Ambio, 23(3), 176-180, May 1994.

Global sea-surface temperature maps show that mass coral-reef bleaching episodes between 1983 and 1991 followed positive temperature anomalies (hot spots) of more than 1°C above the long-term monthly averages that appeared during the preceding warm season. Monitoring of ocean hot spots and of coral bleaching is needed if the climate convention is to meet its goal of protecting the most temperature-sensitive ecosystems.

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