February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... PALEOCLIMATOLOGY
Last Deglaciation Event in the Eastern Central Arctic
Ocean," R. Stein (A. Wegener Inst. Polar & Mar. Res.,
Columbusstr., 27568 Bremerhaven, Ger.), S.-I. Nam et al., Science, 264(5159),
Apr. 29, 1994.
Presents accelerator mass spectrometry 14C-dated isotope and
carbon records that may yield new information for late Quaternary
paleoceanographic reconstructions in the central Arctic Ocean and
their significance for the global climate system.
in Atmospheric Circulation and Ocean Ice Cover over the North
Atlantic During the Last 41,000 Years," P.A. Mayewski (Inst.
Study Earth, Oceans & Space, Univ. New Hampshire, Durham NH
03824), L.D. Meeker et al., ibid., 263(5154),
1747-1751, Mar. 25, 1994.
High-resolution, multivariate chemical records from a central
Greenland ice core reveal a change over the last 41,000 years in
the size and intensity of the circulation system transporting air
masses to Greenland. Iceberg discharge events correlate with
expansions of ocean ice cover and increases in the polar
circulation index. Climate modeling should include aerosol
loadings and variations in ocean ice cover as documented in ice
of the Ice-Divide Position in Greenland to Climate Change,"
S. Anandakrishnan (Earth Syst. Sci. Ctr., Pennsylvania State
Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), R.B. Alley, E.D. Waddington, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(6), 441-444, Mar. 15, 1994.
Used simple steady-state calculations to show that lateral
divide migration of 10-50 km and elevation change of 100 m is
sufficient on glacial-interglacial time scales to affect model
Timing of High Sea Levels over the Past 200,000 Years," C.D.
Gallup (Dept. Geol. & Geophys., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis
MN 55455), R.L. Edwards, R.G. Johnson, Science, 263(5148),
Feb. 11, 1994.
The 230Th ages and 234U/238U ratios for corals in Barbados
suggest that, for the last three interglacial and two intervening
interstadial periods, sea level peaked at or after peaks in
summer insolation in the Northern Hemisphere. This pattern
supports changes in Earth's orbital geometry as a cause of
and Glacial Cycles," B. Saltzman (Dept. Geol. &
Geophys., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511), M.
Verbitsky, Nature, 367(6462), 419, Feb. 3, 1994.
Tests predicted ice-CO2 phase relationships using two widely
accepted, independent measures of CO2 and ice volume.
Record of Biogenic Sulfur in a South Greenland Ice Core
(20D)," P.-Y. Whung (RSMAS, 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami
FL 33149), E.S. Saltzman et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D1),
1147-1156, Jan. 20, 1994.
Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) measurements show no evidence for a
strong dependence of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emissions on sea
surface temperature during the last century, and no indication
that the yield of MSA from DMS oxidation was altered by increased
NOx levels over the North Atlantic.
Rivers: A One-Year Record and a Possible Application to Ice Core
Data," R.E. Newell (Dept. Earth, Atmos. & Planetary
Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), Y. Zhu, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 21(2), 113-116, Jan. 15, 1994.
Examination of the global morphology of tropospheric rivers of
atmospheric humidity from June 1991 to May 1992 indicates that
water vapor involved in ice core formation may have evaporated
from surface water bodies with different temperature and salinity
High-Resolution Record of Atmospheric CO2 Content from Carbon
Isotopes in Peat," J.W.C. White (Inst. Arctic & Alpine
Res., Box 450, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), P. Ciais et
al., Nature, 367(6459), 153-156, Jan. 13, 1994.
Presents a new method for reconstructing atmospheric CO2
concentration using the 13C/12C ratio (Ù13C) in mosses and
sedges in peat. The method provides a resolution of about a
decade, much higher than is possible from ice cores.
Tropics Revisited," D.M. Anderson (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), R.S. Webb, Nature, 367(6458),
Jan. 6, 1994.
Discusses discrepancies between marine and terrestrial
indicators of tropical climate during the last glacial period,
and between model simulations and observations.
Paleoclimate Records from Monsoon Asia," R.S. Bradley (Dept.
Geol. & Geog., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), D.
Sheu, W. Wang, Eos, 74(51), 601, 603-604, Dec. 21,
Reports on a meeting (Taipei, Taiwan; April 1993) that
addressed high-resolution climate records for the past 2000
years. Papers will be published in a special issue of Terrestrial,
Atmospheric and Oceanic Research.
Younger Dryas?" R.Alley (Earth Syst. Sci. Ctr., Pennsylvania
State Univ., Univ. Pk. PA 16802), G. Bond, et al., ibid., 74(50),
587-589, Dec. 14, 1993.
Reports on a workshop (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; April
1993) on how components of the biosphere, ocean, atmosphere, and
cryosphere interact on short timescales. Such information
provides an example of past climate fluctuation that is relevant
for future climate change.
from Nature, 366(6454), Dec. 2, 1993:
"Ancient Tropical Methane," F.A. Street-Perrott
(Environ. Change Unit, Univ. Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TB, UK),
411-412. Comments on the research context of the following paper,
which provides evidence for a strong feedback between the
biosphere and climate on a timescale of centuries.
Changes in Atmospheric CH4 and Greenland Climate Between 40 and 8
kyr BP," J. Chappellaz (Lab. Glac. & Geophys.
l'Environ., BP 96, 38402 St.-Martin-d'Heres Cedex, France), T.
Blunier et al., 443-445. A high-resolution record of atmospheric
methane indicates that large changes in its concentration during
the last deglaciation correlated with variations in Greenland
climate. Variations on the hydrologic cycle at low latitudes may
be responsible for variations in both methane and Greenland
temperature during the interstadials.
Hemisphere Concentrations of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Since
1800: Results from the Mt. Logan and 20D Ice Cores," J.E.
Dibb (Inst. Study Earth, Oceans & Space, Univ. New Hampshire,
Durham NH 03824), R.A. Rasmussen et al., Chemosphere, 27(12),
2413-2423, Dec. 1993.
New data for 1802 to 1960 agree with previous ice core
studies, showing accelerating increases in concentration of both
gases since 1900. The Mt. Logan records may be the first for
trace gases from alpine glacial ice (as opposed to ice sheets
such as in Greenland).
Methane, Record from a Greenland Ice Core Over the Last 1000
Year," T. Blunier (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, Sidlerstr. 5,
3012 Bern, Switz.), J.A. Chappellaz et al., Geophys. Res.
Lett. 20(20), 2219-2222, Oct. 22, 1993.
The beginning of the anthropogenic methane increase can be set
between 1750 and 1800. Specific reasons are hard to deduce, but
population data from China suggest that humans may have
influenced the methane cycle before industrialization.
Evidence for Reduced Productivity in the Glacial Southern
Ocean," A. Shemesh (Dept. Environ. Sci. & Energy Res.,
Weizmann Inst. Sci., Rehovot 76100, Israel), S.A. Macko et al., Science, 262(5132),
Oct. 15, 1993.
Carbon and nitrogen isotope records from deep-sea sediment
cores show that primary production during the last glacial
maximum was lower than during the Holocene, in conflict with the
hypothesis that the low CO2 concentrations were introduced by an
increase in the efficiency of the high latitude biological pump.
Instead, different oceanic sectors may have had high glacial
productivity, or other mechanisms not involving the biological
pump may have been the primary cause of low glacial atmospheric
Trends in High Northern Latitude Temperature Reconstructions
Based on Tree Rings," R.D. D'Arrigo (Tree-Ring Lab.,
Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), G.C. Jacoby, Clim.
Change, 25(2), 163-177, Oct. 1993. (See GCCD,
p. 6, Mar. 1994)
"The First Greenland Ice Core Record of Methanesulfonate
[MSA] and Sulfate over a Full Glacial Cycle," M.E. Hansson
(Dept. Meteor., Stockholm Univ., S-106 91 Stockholm, Swed.), E.S.
Saltzman, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(12), 1163-1166,
June 18, 1993.
Presents the first Northern Hemisphere record of MSA and the
first continuous record of non-seasalt sulfate. The records
contrast sharply with those of the Southern Hemisphere, with a
decrease in MSA concentration with the advance of glaciation, but
an increase in non-seasalt sulfate concentration.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations