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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94jul27

"Effect of Variations in Supersaturation on the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei," Y.J. Kaufman (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), D. Tanré, Nature, 369(6475), 45-48, May 5, 1994.

Shows that natural variability of even low average supersaturations allows particles as small as 0.015 µm to grow into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This result suggests that anthropogenic sulfur emission has a larger impact on climate than estimated recently by Langner et al.

Item #d94jul28

"Photochemistry of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," B.C. Faust (Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), Environ. Sci. Technol., 28(5), 217A-222A, May 1994.

Reviews reactions involving H2O2, the OH radical, the superoxide radical, and Fe(III). These reactions may occur in and on stratospheric cloud and aerosol particles, as well as in cloud and fog drops, and may influence stratospheric chemical cycles.

Item #d94jul29

"The Cycling of Sulfur in Surface Seawater of the Northeast Pacific," T.S. Bates (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE, Seattle WA 98115), R.P. Kiene et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(C4), 7835-7843, Apr. 15, 1994.

Data imply that, because air-sea exchange is only a minor sink in the seawater sulfur cycle, there is the potential for much higher dimethyl sulfide emissions under different climatic conditions.

Item #d94jul30

Two items from Tellus, 46B(2), Apr. 1994:

"The Effect of Anthropogenic Sulfate Aerosols on Marine Cloud Droplet Concentrations," T. Novakov (Energy & Environ. Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley CA 94720), C. Rivera-Carpio et al., 132-141. The empirically derived sensitivities of the droplet number concentrations to non-seasalt SO42- mass concentrations are much lower than those assumed in recent assessments of the effect of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols on cloud albedo.

"Sea-Salt Particles in the Upper Tropical Troposphere," M. Ikegami (Meteor. Res. Inst., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), K. Okada et al., 142-151. Aircraft observations show that sea-salt particles play an important role in the heterogeneous formation of sulfuric acid particles in the tropical free troposphere.

Item #d94jul31

"Quantifying and Minimizing Uncertainty of Climate Forcing by Anthropogenic Aerosols," J.E. Penner (Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), R.J. Charlson et al., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75(3), 375-400, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 3, Mar. 1994)

Item #d94jul32

"Trends in Global Marine Cloudiness and Anthropogenic Sulfur," F. Parungo (NOAA/ERL, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), J.F. Boatman et al., J. Clim., 7(3), 434-440, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 6, Mar. 1994)

Item #d94jul33

"Trends in Elemental Concentrations of Fine Particles at Remote Sites in the United States of America," R.A. Eldred (Crooker Nuclear Lab., Univ. Calif., Davis CA 95616), T.A. Cahill, Atmos. Environ., 28(5), 1009-1019, Mar. 1994.

Using stable sampling and analytical protocols, determined statistically significant historical trends as small as 1-2% per year for sites with 10-year records.

Item #d94jul34

"Determining the Susceptibility of Cloud Albedo to Changes in Droplet Concentration with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer," S. Platnick (NASA-Goddard, Code 913, Greenbelt MD 20771), S. Twomey, J. Appl. Meteor., 33(3), 334-347, Mar. 1994.

The susceptibility for marine stratus clouds varied by about two orders of magnitude. Climate studies that include marine stratus albedo modification from anthropogenic cloud condensation nuclei are incomplete without accounting for existing susceptibility.

Item #d94jul35

"Computation of Anthropogenic Sulphate Aerosol Forcing Using Radiative Perturbation Theory," M.A. Box (Sch. Phys., Univ. New S. Wales, Kensington NSW 2033, Australia), T. Trautmann, Tellus, 46B(1), 33-39, Feb. 1994.

Used a detailed sulfate optical model and radiative perturbation theory to calculate climate forcing. Results are similar to previous calculations by Charlson et al., if humidity effects are taken into account.

Item #d94jul36

"Two-Hundred-Year Record of Biogenic Sulfur in a South Greenland Ice Core (20D)," (see Paleoclimatology section).

Item #d94jul37

"Aerosol Size Distributions in the Cloudy Atmospheric Boundary Layer of the North Atlantic Ocean," D.A. Hegg (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), R.J. Ferek, P.V. Hobbs, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D5), 8841-8846, May 20, 1993.

Measurements suggest that particle nucleation of acid sulfate occurs, but is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous.

Item #d94jul38

"The First Greenland Ice Core Record of Methanesulfonate [MSA] and Sulfate over a Full Glacial Cycle," (see Paleoclimatology section).

Specialized Papers

Item #d94jul39

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), Apr. 20, 1994:

"Cloud Droplet Number Studies with a Counterflow Virtual Impactor," T.L. Anderson (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), D.S. Covert, R.J. Charlson, 8249-8256. Discusses some of the difficulties in quantifying the cloud-mediated climatic effect of aerosol perturbations from either natural or anthropogenic emissions.

"Measurements of Chloride Depletion and Sulfur Enrichment in Individual Sea-Salt Particles Collected from the Remote Marine Boundary Layer," L.M. McInnes (Dept. Chem., Univ. Washington, AK-40, Seattle WA 98195), D.S. Covert et al., 8257-8268.

Item #d94jul40

"Coherence Between Seasonal Variation in Satellite-Derived Cloud Optical Depth and Boundary Layer CCN Concentrations at a Mid-Latitude Southern Hemisphere Station," R. Boers (CSIRO/DAR, Aspendale, Victoria 3195, Australia), G.P. Ayers, J.L. Gras, Tellus, 46B(2), 123-131, Apr. 1994.

Item #d94jul41

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), Feb. 20, 1994:

"Non-Sea-Salt Sulfate and Methanesulfonate at American Samoa," D.L. Savoie (Rosenstiel Sch. Mar. & Atmos. Sci., Univ. Miami, Miami FL 33149), J.M. Prospero et al., 3587-3596.

"Aqueous Reaction Kinetics of Ozone and Dimethylsulfide and Its Atmospheric Implications," Y.-N. Lee (Dept. Appl Sci., Brookhaven Natl. Lab., Upton NY 11973), X. Zhou, 3597-3605.

Item #d94jul42

"Sulfate and MSA in the Air and Snow on the Greenland Ice Sheet," J.-L. Jaffrezo, C.I. Davidson (Dept. Civ. Eng., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh PA 15213) et al., ibid., 99(D1), 1241-1253, Jan. 20, 1994.

Item #d94jul43

Comment and reply on "A Model Study of the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Remote Marine Areas," ibid., 98(D11), 20,813-20,816, Nov. 20, 1993.

Item #d94jul44

"Atmospheric Sulfur Chemistry and Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Concentrations over the Northeastern Pacific Coast," H. Berresheim (Sch. Earth & Atmos. Sci., Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta GA 30332), F.L. Eisele et al., ibid., 98 (D7), 12,701-12,711, July 20, 1993.

Item #d94jul45

"Dimethylsulfide/Cloud Condensation Nuclei/Climate System: Relevant Size-Resolved Measurements of the Chemical and Physical Properties of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles," P.K. Quinn (PMEL, NOAA, 7600 Sand Pt. Way NE, Seattle WA 98115), D.S. Covert et al., ibid., 98(D6), 10,411-10,427, June 20, 1993.

Item #d94jul46

"Parameterization of Cloudiness as a Function of Temperature for Use in a Thermodynamic Model," R. Garduño (Ctr. Ciencias Atmós., UNAM, Circuito Exterior, CU, 04510 México, D.F. México), J. Adem, World Resour. Rev., 5(2), 246-253, June 1993. Used the Adem thermodynamic model to compute climate change due to atmospheric CO2 increase.

Item #d94jul47

Comment on "A Model Study of the Formation of Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Remote Marine Areas," J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4), 7127-7128, Apr. 20, 1993.

Item #d94jul48

"CCN Formation from DMS Oxidation Without SO2 Acting as an Intermediate," X. Lin (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), W.L. Chameides, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(7), 579-582, Apr. 9, 1993.

Item #d94jul49

"The Influence of Light Intensity on Dimethylsulfide Production by a Marine Diatom," Y.-A. Vetter (Coll. Marine Stud., Univ. Delaware, Lewes DE 19958), J.H. Sharp, Limnol. Oceanog., 38(2), 419-425, Mar. 1993.

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