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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94jul84

"Observation of Charge-Induced Recovery of Ozone Concentration After Catalytic Destruction by Chlorofluorocarbons," A.Y. Wong (Dept. Phys., Univ. Calif., Los Angeles CA 90024), D.K. Sensharma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72(19), 3124-3127, May 9, 1994.

Used negative charges in laboratory experiments to convert chlorine atoms released from CFCs by UV radiation to chlorine ions that could subsequently be collected by a positive surface. The results could potentially lead to a remediation method for stratospheric ozone depletion. (See Res. News.)

Item #d94jul85

Special issue: Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(13), June 22, 1994, consists of over 70 papers describing the first results of the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE), which took place in the winter of 1991-92. More than 60 research groups including some from North America, Japan and the Australasian region participated in data collection and modeling. For single copies contact Amer. Geophys. Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW, Washington DC 20009.

Item #d94jul86

"Photochemistry of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," (see Aerosol section). Reviews reactions including those involved in stratospheric chemistry.

Item #d94jul87

"Two items from Science, 264(5158), Apr. 22, 1994:

"Sulfate Aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Cloud Formation," M.A. Tolbert (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), 527-528. Reports on recent findings on heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds, presented at a NASA workshop (Boulder, Colo., Nov. 1993). Increased knowledge about the composition of stratospheric clouds may enable improved predictions about when and where they form.

"Antarctic Total Ozone in 1958," P.A. Newman (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771), Science, 264(5158), 543-546, Apr. 22, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994)

Item #d94jul88

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), Apr. 20, 1994:

"Chemistry of the 1991-1992 Stratospheric Winter: Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," F. Lefèvre (Ctr. Natl. Res. Meteor., F-31057 Toulouse, France), G.P. Brasseur et al., 8183-8195. A simulation of the 1991-1992 Arctic winter showed that heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds and sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption increased ozone-depleting ClO concentrations at middle and high latitudes. Net destruction of O3 was limited by available sunlight and the short period during which stratospheric clouds occurred.

"Aerosol-Associated Changes in Tropical Stratospheric Ozone Following the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo," W.B. Grant (Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), E.V. Browell et al., 8197-8211. The 33% decrease in ozone observed after the eruption correlated with enhanced aerosol loading at altitudes of 16-28 km. The ozone changes may be due to a combination of dynamic perturbations, radiative perturbations on ozone photochemistry, and heterogeneous chemistry.

"Atmospheric Chemistry of the Reaction ClO + O2 <=> ClO·O2: Where It Stands, What Needs to be Done, and Why?" S.S. Prasad (Creative Res. Enterprises, POB 174, Pleasanton CA 94566), T.J. Lee, 8225-8230. Discusses the need for definitive experiments on the existence and chemistry of ClO·O2, which has the potential to mediate chlorine-catalyzed stratospheric ozone depletion.

Item #d94jul89

"The Impact of High Altitude Aircraft on the Ozone Layer in the Stratosphere," X.X. Tie (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), G. Brasseur et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 18(2), 103-128, Feb. 1994.

Used a coupled chemical, dynamical, radiative and microphysical two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere for the investigation, and determined that significant ozone depletion can result from the formation of polar stratospheric clouds by H2O and HNO3 from aircraft engines.

Item #d94jul90

"A Three-Dimensional Model Study of Nitrogen Oxides in the Stratosphere," D.J. Lary, J.A. Pyle (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), G. Carver, Quart. J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(516), 453-482, Jan. Part B.

Demonstrates a new model for stratospheric chemistry based on a spectral general circulation model. It produces a feature, similar to the Noxon cliff, in which the NO2 column is reduced significantly at high latitudes. The cliff is produced by gas-phase conversion of NO2 to N2O5.

Specialized Papers

Item #d94jul91

Four items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(10), May 15, 1994:

"Energetic Particle-Induced Enhancements of Stratospheric Nitric Acid," A.C. Aikin (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), 859-862.

"Photodissociation of O2 and H2O in the Middle Atmosphere: Comparison of Numerical Methods and Impact on Model O3 and OH," D.E. Siskind (Ctr. Space Res., Naval Res. Lab., Code 7641, Washington DC 20375), K. Minschwaner, R.S. Eckman, 863-866.

"Growth of Nitric Acid Hydrates on Thin Sulfuric Acid Films," L.T. Iraci (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), A.M. Middlebrook et al., 867-870.

"Composition and Freezing of Aqueous H2SO4/HNO3 Solutions Under Polar Stratospheric Conditions," K.D. Beyer (Dept. Earth, Atmos. & Planetary Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), S.W. Seago et al., 871-874.

Item #d94jul92

Three items from ibid., 21(9), May 1, 1994:

"Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CH3Cl, CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br," K.-J. Hsu (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), W.B. DeMore, 805-808.

"Southern Hemisphere Ground Based Measurements of Carbonyl Fluoride (COF2) and Hydrogen Fluoride (HF): Partitioning Between Fluoride Reservoir Species," A.R. Reisinger (Inst. Remote Sensing, Univ. Bremen, POB 330 440, 28534 Bremen, Ger.), N.B. Jones et al., 797-800.

"Stratospheric Warmings During February and March 1993," G.L. Manney (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), R.W. Zurek et al., 813-816.

Item #d94jul93

Four items from ibid., 21(7), Apr. 1, 1994:

"Temperature Dependence of the Ozone Absorption Spectrum over the Wavelength Range 410 to 760 nm," J.B. Burkholder (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.K. Talukdar, 581-584.

"Temperature Dependence of the ClONO2 UV Absorption Spectrum," J.B. Burkholder (addr. immed. above), R.K. Talukdar, A.R. Ravishankara, 585-588.

"Southern Hemisphere Mid-Latitude Seasonal Cycle in Total Column Nitric Acid," N.B. Jones (Natl. Inst. Water & Atmos., Lauder, New Zealand), M. Koike et al., 593-596.

"Impact of Pinatubo Aerosols on the Partitioning Between NO2 and HNO3," M. Koike (Solar-Terr. Environ. Lab., Nagoya Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), N.B. Jones et al., 597-600.

Item #d94jul94

Seven items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), Feb. 20, 1994:

"On the Distribution of Cold Air near the Vortex Edge in the Lower Stratosphere," X. Tao (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), A.F. Tuck, 3431-3450.

"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 10. Reductions of Stratospheric NO2 Due to Pinatubo Aerosols," S. Solomon (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.W. Sanders et al., 3509-3516.

"The Reaction Probability of N2O5 with Sulfuric Acid Aerosols at Stratospheric Temperatures and Compositions," A. Fried (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.E. Henry et al., 3517-3532.

"The Moon as a Light Source for FTIR Measurements of Stratospheric Trace Gases During the Polar Night: Application for HNO3 in the Arctic," J. Notholt (A. Wegener Inst. Polar & Meeresforschung, Forschungsstelle Potsdam, Postfach 60014 Potsdam, D-14401 Ger.), 3607-3614.

"Heterogeneous Reactions in Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: A Framework for Model Calculations," D.R. Hanson (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, 3615-3629.

"High-Resolution Analysis of Direct and Scattered Radiation in the Stratosphere Between 175 and 210 nm," K. Minschwaner (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 3677-3684.

"Branching Ratios for the O(1D) + N2O Reaction," C.A. Cantrell (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), R.E. Shetter, J.G. Calvert, 3739-3743.

Item #d94jul95

Four items from ibid., 99(D1), Jan. 20, 1994:

"A Three-Dimensional Transport Model for the Middle Atmosphere," P.J. Rasch (addr. immed. above), X.X. Tie et al., 999-1017.

"Age as a Diagnostic of Stratospheric Transport," T.M. Hall (Lab. Modélisation Climat & Environ., CEA-DSM CE Saclay (Bat. 709), 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France), R.A. Plumb, 1059-1070.

"Ozone Within the El Chichón Aerosol Cloud Inferred from Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Continuous-Scan Measurements," G. Wen (Environ. Res. Div., Argonne Natl. Lab., Argonne IL 60439), J.E. Frederick, 1263-1271.

"Aerosol Effect on Umkehr Ozone Profiles Using Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II Measurements," M.J. Newchurch (Res. Inst., Univ. Alabama, RI-E47, Huntsville AL 35899), D.M. Cunnold, 1383-1388.

Item #d94jul96

"Sensitivity of Stratospheric Composition to Oxygen Absorption of Solar Radiation (175-210 nm)," R. Toumi (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), S. Bekki, J. Atmos. Chem., 18(1), 57-73, Jan. 1994.

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