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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94Aug74

"Radiative-Convective Model with an Explicit Hydrologic Cycle. 1. Formulation and Sensitivity to Model Parameters," N.O. Rennó (Lawrence-Livermore Natl. Lab., POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), K.A. Emanuel, P.H. Stone, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), 14,429-14,441, July 20, 1994.

A 1-D radiative-convective model, which differs from others in that the moisture profile is interactively computed by the cumulus convection scheme, is used to evaluate several cumulus convection schemes currently in use. Climate equilibrium is very sensitive to cloud microphysical processes; the convection schemes currently in use in GCMs are inadequate for climate change studies in this respect.

Item #d94Aug75

"Simulation of the Modern Arctic Climate by the NCAR CCM1," D.H. Bromwich (Byrd Polar Ctr., Ohio State Univ., 108 Scott Hall, 1090 Carmack Rd., Columbus OH 43210), R.-Y. Tzeng, T.R. Parish, J. Clim., 7(7), 1050-1069, July 1994.

Compares a five-year seasonal cycle simulation with ECMWF global analyses, in terms of sea level pressure, storm tracks, total energy budget, and moisture and cloud distributions. The model has serious problems in simulating the present Arctic climate, throwing into question its simulations of past and future climate change for this region.

Item #d94Aug76

"Antarctic Climate Modeling with General Circulation Models of the Atmosphere," C. Genthon (Lab. Glaciol. & Geophys. l'Environ., BP 96, F-38402 St.-Martin-d'Heres Cedex, France), J. Geophys. Res., 99(D6), 12,953-12,961, June 20, 1994.

Evaluates the abilities of the GISS and METEO-FRANCE Arpège GCMs to simulate climate variables that affect the mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet. Deficiencies in reproducing the surface temperature and other deficiencies are identified. A barrier to evaluation is the lack of reliable observations for comparison.

Item #d94Aug77

Three items relating to ocean eddies in Nature, 264(5162), May 20, 1994:

"Representing Ocean Eddies in Climate Models," J.D. Neelin (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. California, Los Angeles CA 90024), J. Marotzke, 1099-1100. Gives a research perspective on the following paper.

"The Role of Mesoscale Tracer Transports in the Global Ocean Circulation," G. Danabasoglu (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), J.C. McWilliams, P.R. Gent, 1123-1126. Although routine ocean simulations in climate models have not included mesoscale eddies, presented here is a new parameterization of these eddies that has been implemented in a widely used model. It leads to significant improvements in the global temperature distribution, poleward and surface heat fluxes, and the location of deep-water formation.

"Estimates of Diapycnal Mixing in the Abyssal Ocean," J.M. Toole (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods Hole MA 02543), K.L. Polzin, R.W. Schmitt, 1120-1123. Profiles of diapycnal eddy diffusivity to a depth of 4000 meters were derived from measurements in the northeast Pacific and northeast Atlantic Oceans. Results suggest that basin-averaged mixing rates may be dominated by processes occurring near the ocean boundaries.

Item #d94Aug78

"Diagnostic Study of Climate Feedback Processes in Atmospheric General Circulation Models," M.H. Zhang (State Univ. New York, Stony Brook NY 11794), J.J. Hack et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D3), 5525-5537, Mar. 20, 1994.

Proposes a method to diagnose climatic feedbacks of water vapor, temperature lapse-rate, and cloud variations in GCMs, and uses it to compare several versions of the NCAR climate model (CCM2).

Item #d94Aug79

"Sea Level Changes Under Increasing Atmospheric CO2 in a Transient Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere GCM Experiment," J.M. Gregory (Hadley Ctr., Meteor. Off., London Rd., Bracknell, Berkshire RG12 2SY, UK), J. Clim., 6(12), 2247-2262, Dec. 1993.

Global and local sea level changes due to thermal expansion and changes in ocean dynamics and atmospheric pressure patterns were diagnosed from a 75-year experiment with the UKMO model. Over the final decade, the mean global sea level rise is 90 mm, but there are considerable local variations, with the largest rise in the northwest Atlantic. Illustrates how this local variation makes it difficult to estimate global sea level rise from a limited number of coastal stations.

Item #d94Aug80

"GCM Simulations of Volcanic Aerosol Forcing. Part I: Climate Changes Induced by Steady-State Perturbations," J.B. Pollack (NASA-Ames, Moffet Field CA 94035), D. Rind et al., ibid., 6(9), 1719-1742, Sep. 1993. (See GCCD, p. 7, June.)

Specialized Papers

Item #d94Aug81

Three items in J. Clim., 7(8), Aug. 1994:

"Sensitivity of a GCM Simulation of Global Climate to the Representation of Land-Surface Hydrology," J.F. Stamm, E.F. Wood, D.P. Lettenmaier (Dept. Civil Eng., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 1218-1239. Results argue for representation of the surface hydrology with two-layer soil models.

"A Multivariate Analysis of Arctic Climate in GCMs," D.L. McGinnis (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), R.G. Crane, 1240-1250. Shortcomings in four GCMs show a need for improvements in several areas.

"Snow Hydrology in a General Circulation Model," S. Marshall (Dept. Geog., Univ. N. Carolina, Charlotte NC 28223), J.O. Roads, G. Glatzmaier, 1251-1269. Compares atmospheric and surface hydrologic budgets and the surface energy budget in the U.S. and Canada.

Item #d94Aug82

Two items in J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), July 20, 1994:

"Evaluation of a GCM Cirrus Parameterization Using Satellite Observations," B.J. Soden (GFDL, POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), L.J. Donner, 14,401-14,413.

"A Simple Hydrologically Based Model of Land Surface Water and Energy Fluxes for General Circulation Models," X. Liang (Dept. Civil Eng., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), D.P. Lettenmaier et al., 14,415-14,428.

Item #d94Aug83

"The Significance of Detailed Structure in the Boundary Layer to Thermal Radiation at the Surface in Climate Models," W. Zhao (Appl. Res. Corp, NASA-Goddard, Code 913, Greenbelt MD 20771), W.R. Kuhn, S.R. Drayson, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), 1631-1634, July 15, 1994.

Item #d94Aug84

"Diurnal Temperature Range for a Doubled Carbon Dioxide Concentration Experiment: Analysis of Possible Physical Mechanisms," M. Verdecchia (Dip. Fisica, Univ. Studi, L'Aquila, Italy), G. Visconti et al., ibid., 21(14), 1527-1530, July 1, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 3, July 1994.)

Item #d94Aug85

"Radiative Characteristics of the Canadian Climate Centre Second-Generation General Circulation Model," H.W. Barker (Atmos. Environ. Serv., 4905 Dufferin St., Downsview ON M3H 5T4, Can.), Z. Li, J.-P. Blanchet, J. Clim., 7(7), 1070-1091, July 1994.

Item #d94Aug86

"Examination of Tracer Transport in the NCAR CCM2 by Comparison of CFCL3 Simulations with ALE/GAGE Observations," D.E. Hartley (Ctr. Global Change Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), D.L. Williamson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D6), 12,885-12,896, June 20, 1994.

Item #d94Aug87

"Continental-Scale River Flow in Climate Models," J.R. Miller (Dept. Marine & Coastal Sci., Cook College, Rutgers Univ., POB 231, New Brunswick NJ 08903), G.L. Russell, G. Caliri, J. Clim., 7(6), 914-928, June 1994. The scheme presented allows water to return to the ocean at the correct location with proper magnitude and timing.

Item #d94Aug88

"Sensitivity Properties of a Biosphere Model Based on BATS and a Statistical-Dynamical Climate Model," T. Zhang (Dept. Geol. & Geophys., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511), J. Clim., 7(6), 890-913, June 1994.

Item #d94Aug89

Two items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D5), May 20, 1994:

"Comparison of the Land Surface Climatology of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model 2 at R15 and T42 Resolutions," G.B. Bonan (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 10,357-10,364.

"The Interrelationship Between Temperature Changes in the Free Atmosphere Microwave Sounding Unit and Sea Surface Temperature Changes in a 10-Year Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project Climate Simulation," J.S. Boyle (PCMDI, Lawrence-Livermore Natl. Lab., L-264, POB 808, Livermore CA 94550), 10,365-10,375.

Item #d94Aug90

"Simulation of Streamflow in a Macroscale Watershed Using General Circulation Model Data," G.W. Kite (Natl. Hydrol. Res. Inst., 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5, Can.), A. Dalton, K. Dion, Water Resour. Res., 30(5), 1547-1559, May 1994.

Item #d94Aug91

"Carbon Uptake Experiments with a Zonally-Averaged Global Ocean Circulation Model," T.F. Stocker (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, 3012 Bern, Switz.), W.S. Broecker, Tellus, 46B(2), 103-122, Apr. 1994.

Item #d94Aug92

"A One-Dimensional Study of Possible Cirrus Cloud Feedbacks," A. Sinha (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Reading, 2 Earley Gate, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AU, UK), K.P. Shine, J. Clim., 7(1), 158-173, Jan. 1994. Results imply that models with coarse vertical resolution may not properly represent cirrus cloud feedbacks.

Item #d94Aug93

Two items from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(2), June 1993:

"Ecosystem Behavior at Bermuda Station "S" and Ocean Weather Station "India": A General Circulation Model and Observational Analysis," M.J.R. Fasham (Chilworth Res. Ctr., Southampton SO1 7NS, UK), J.L. Sarmiento et al., 379-415.

"A Seasonal Three-Dimensional Ecosystem Model of Nitrogen Cycling in the North Atlantic Euphotic Zone," J.L. Sarmiento (Prog. Atmos. & Ocean. Sci., Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08540), R.D. Slater et al., 417-450.

Item #d94Aug94

"Chemistry of the 1991-1992 Stratospheric Winter: Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," F. Lefèvre (Ctr. Natl. Res. Meteor., F-31057 Toulouse, France), G.P. Brasseur et al., J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), 8183-8195, Apr. 20, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 9, July 1994.)

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