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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94Aug55

"Rapid Cycling of High-Molecular-Weight Dissolved Organic Matter [DOM] in the Ocean," R.M.W. Amon (Marine Sci. Inst., Univ. Texas, Port Aransas TX 78373), R. Benner, Nature, 369(6481), 549-552, June 16, 1994.

A study of water taken from the Gulf of Mexico during a diatom bloom revealed that bacterial growth was three times greater and respiration six times greater in the presence of high-molecular-weight DOM than for low-molecular-weight DOM. Results demonstrate that the bulk of oceanic DOM comprises small molecules that cycle slowly and are relatively unavailable to microorganisms.

Item #d94Aug56

"The Impact of Intensive Forest Management on Carbon Stores in Forest Ecosystems," O.N. Krankina (Dept. For. Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), M.E. Harmon, World Resour. Rev., 6(2), 161-177, June 1994.

A long-term study in the U.S. and Russia suggests that intensive management can reduce total woody biomass averaged over a rotation to 10-25% that of natural old-growth forests. Intensive management may generate a major carbon flux into the atmosphere. Its effects should be included in future carbon budgets and forest management strategies.

Item #d94Aug57

"Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Exchange in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre: Implications for the Global Carbon Budget," C.D. Winn (Sch. Ocean & Earth Sci., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu HI 96822), F.T. Mackenzie et al., Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(2), 157-163, June 1994.

Measured dissolved inorganic carbon and titration alkalinity over a four-year period. Presents a mechanism by which the region can be a potential sink for 0.2 Gt C per year of atmospheric CO2. However, the magnitude of this sink is relatively small, and the data and interpretations are consistent with the argument for a relatively large sink during the 1980s in Northern Hemisphere terrestrial biomass.

Item #d94Aug58

"Beaver Impoundments in Temperate Forests as Sources of Atmospheric CO2," J.B. Yavitt (Dept. Nat. Resour., Fernow Hall, Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14853), T.J. Fahey, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(11), 995-998, June 1, 1994.

Measurements in the Adirondack, New York, region, show the impoundments, which cover 3% of the landscape, are important sources of atmospheric CO2. The magnitude of the CO2 sink there would be 7% lower than estimates based only on the terrestrial component.

Item #d94Aug59

"Mycorrhizae Alter Quality and Quantity of Carbon Allocated Below Ground," P.T. Rygiewicz (Environ. Res. Lab., US EPA, 200 SW 35th St., Corvallis OR 97333), C.P. Andersen, Nature, 369(6475), 58-60, May 5, 1994.

Measured directly carbon in and through all major pools of a mycorrhizal (fungus-root) conifreous seedling (a complete carbon budget). If elevated atmospheric CO2 and altered climate stressors change mycorrhizal colonization in forests, the role of forests in sequestering carbon could also be altered.

Item #d94Aug60

"Trends in Stomatal Density and 13C/12C Ratios of Pinus flexilis Needles During Last Glacial-Interglacial Cycle," P.K. Van de Water, S.W. Leavitt, J.L. Betancourt (USGS, 1675 W. Anklam Rd., Tucson AZ 85745), Science, 264(5156), 239-242, Apr. 8, 1994.

Measurements, at sites selected to isolate the effects of changing atmospheric CO2 levels, reveal shifts in plant physiology and leaf morphology during the last 30,000 years. The Ù13C variations may help constrain hypotheses about the redistribution of carbon between the atmosphere and biosphere during the last glacial-interglacial cycle.

Item #d94Aug61

"The Continental Carbon Cycle During the Last Glacial Maximum," J. Servant (Lab. Aérol., 118, route Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex, France), Atmos. Res., 31(4), 253-268, Apr. 1994.

Estimates that the reduction of terrestrial carbon storage due to the decrease in land surface temperature and to the extent of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet is 363-544 Gt. The simultaneous 46% decrease in atmospheric CH4 can be attributed to a reduction in continental emissions sources (mainly at boreal latitudes) and increased atmospheric OH.

Item #d94Aug62

"South American Tree Rings Show Declining Ù13C Trend," S.W. Leavitt (Lab. Tree-Ring Res., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), A. Lara, Tellus, 46B(2), 152-157, Apr. 1994.

A Ù13C chronology for alerce trees in Chile shows a trend similar to that from studies in the Northern Hemisphere, and provides the first evidence for interhemispheric reproducibility of Ù13C chronologies. The trend conforms to that of Ù13C of atmospheric CO2 determined from ice cores and direct measurements.

Item #d94Aug63

"The Gateway for Terrestrial Material Entering the Ocean," C.A. Nittrouer (Marine Sci. Res. Ctr., State Univ. of New York, Stoney Brook NY 11794), G.J. Brunskill, Eos, 75(16), 191-192, Apr. 19, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 9, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug64

"Coastal Metabolism and the Oceanic Organic Carbon Balance," S.V. Smith (Dept. Oceanog., Univ. Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii), J.T. Hollibaugh, Rev. Geophys., 31(1), 75-89, Feb. 1993. (See GCCD, p. 9, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug65

Two items from World Resour. Rev., 6(1), Mar. 1994

"Forest Management Options to Conserve and Sequester Terrestrial Carbon in the Russian Federation," O.N. Krankina (Dept. For. Sci., Oregon State Univ., Corvallis OR 97331), R.K. Dixon, 88-101. Estimates the carbon content of Russian forests to be 220 Pg, using land-use and forest inventory data. Establishment of forest plantations and forest management practices can result in additional net carbon accumulation of about 0.3-0.9 Pg per year.

"Carbon Balance in Mire Ecosystems," J. Päivänen (Dept. For. Ecol., Univ. Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Fin.), H. Vasander, 102-111. An overview of carbon dynamics in mires (wetland ecosystems maintained by a humid climate and a high water table), and of a Finnish project to study the effects of climate change and mire utilization.

Item #d94Aug66

"Carbon Dynamics in a Forested Peatland in North-Eastern Ontario, Canada," D.J. Charman (Dept. Geog. Sci., Univ. Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK), R. Aravena, B.G. Warner, J. Ecol., 82(1), 55-62, 1994.

Analysis of field data shows that the internal carbon dynamics of peatlands are more complex than previously thought. Hydrology may be an important factor in the supply of source carbon for anaerobic decay.

Item #d94Aug67

"Pre-Industrial Particulate Emissions and Carbon Sequestration from Biomass Burning in North America," J.S. Clark (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), P.D. Royall, Biogeochem., 24(1), 35-51, Jan. 1994. (See Trend Analyses section.)

Item #d94Aug68

Special issue: "Carbon Cycling: Regional and Global Factors Affecting Climate Change," J.R.E. Harger, K.W. Sorenson, M.A.K. Khalil, Eds., Chemosphere, 27(6), 1993 (Pergamon Press). Selected papers from a workshop (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Oct. 1991), organized by UNESCO, the Dept. of Environment of Malaysia, and UNEP.

"Potential Limits of Human Dominated Fossil Energy Based Global Ecosystems," J.R.E. Harger, 907-946.

"Palaeoecology, Past Climate Systems, and C3/C4 Photosynthesis," R.A. Spicer, 947-978.

"Climate Models: Rationale, Status, and Promises," P. Martin, 979-998.

"Carbon Dynamics in Peatlands and Other Wetland Soils: Regional and Global Perspectives," E. Maltby, P. Immirzi, 999-1024.

"Tropical Rain Forests as Carbon Sinks," E. Soepadmo, 1025-1040.

"The Oceanic Anthropogenic CO2 Sink," C.-T.A. Chen, 1041-1064.

"Indonesian Peat Swamp Forests and Their Role as a Carbon Sink," K.W. Sorensen, 1065-1082.

"Sedimentary Calcium Carbonate Dissolution in the Gulf of Thailand and Its Role as a Carbon Dioxide Sink," A. Snidvongs, 1083-1096.

"Mangroves: A Carbon Source and Sink," O.J. Eong, 1097-1108.

"Policy Options to Reduce CO2 Release Resulting from Deforestation and Biomass Burning in Indonesia," D. Murdiyarso, 1109-1120.

"The Southeast Asian Marine Aquatic Environment, the Carbon Cycle and the Need for Regional Cooperative Research," A. Soegiarto, 1121 ff.

Specialized Papers

Item #d94Aug69

"Carbon Uptake Experiments with a Zonally-Averaged Global Ocean Circulation Model," T.F. Stocker (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, 3012 Bern, Switz.), W.S. Broecker, Tellus, 46B(2), 103-122, Apr. 1994.

Item #d94Aug70

Three items from Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 8(1), Mar. 1994:

"Uptake of Inorganic Carbon and Nitrate by Marine Plankton and the Redfield Ratio," K. Banse (Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), 81-84.

"Variations of Marine Plankton Ù13C with Latitude, Temperature, and Dissolved CO2 in the World Ocean," R. Goericke (Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), B. Fry, 85-90.

"Carbon Isotope Fractionation by Marine Phytoplankton in Culture: The Effects of CO2 Concentration, pH, Temperature, and Species," K.R. Hinga (Grad. Sch. Oceanog., Univ. Rhode Island, Narragansett RI 02882), M.A. Arthur et al., 91-102.

Item #d94Aug71

"Modeling Carbon Storage Profiles in Temperate Forest Humic Loamy Soils of France," D. Arrouays (Inst. Natl. Recherche Agron., SESCPF, BP 81, 33140, Pont de la Maye, France), P. Pelissier, Soil Sci., 157(3), 185-192, Mar. 1994.

Item #d94Aug72

"Carbon Dioxide Consumption During Soil Development," O.A. Chadwick (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), E.F. Kelly et al., Biogeochem., 24(3), 115-127, 1994.

Item #d94Aug73

"Automated Monitoring of Nitrous Oxide and Carbon Dioxide Flux from Forest Soils," N.S. Loftfield (Inst. Soil Sci. & For. Nutr., Buesgenweg 2, 3400 Goettingen, Ger.), R. Brumme, F. Beese, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 56(4), 1147-1150, July-Aug. 1992.

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