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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94Aug24

"Present Century Snow Core Record of Organolead Pollution in Greenland," R. Lobinski (Dept. Chem., Univ. Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium), C.F. Boutron et al., Environ. Sci. & Technol., 28(8), 1467-1471, Aug. 1994.

Gives unambiguous evidence of the gasoline-related sources of lead in aged Greenland snow and ice during the past 70 years. Concentrations show an increase from the early 1970s to the late 1980s that correlates with data on the distribution of organolead species in gasoline, and the consumption of leaded gasoline in Europe and the U.S.

Item #d94Aug25

"River Runoff to the Baltic Sea: 1950-1990," S. Bergström (Swed. Meteor. Inst., S-601 76 Norrköping, Swed.), B. Carlsson, Ambio, 23(4-5), 280-287, July 1994.

A database is created and combined with an earlier one to examine the period 1921-1990. The variability of inflow is great; 1981-1990 was the wettest decade, although wet years are also found in the 1920s.

Item #d94Aug26

"Relationship Between Ozone and Temperature Trends in the Lower Stratosphere: Latitude and Seasonal Dependencies," J.P. McCormack (Lunar & Planetary Lab., Univ. Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721), L.L. Hood, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(15), 1615-1618, July 15, 1994.

Uses a 1-D radiative transfer model with fixed dynamical heating to characterize temperature response to ozone trends. Results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that observed lower stratospheric cooling trends are predominantly determined by reductions in radiative heating from decreased ozone.

Item #d94Aug27

"Increasing U.S. Streamflow Linked to Greenhouse Forcing," H.F. Lins (U.S. Geol. Survey, Reston, Va.), P.J. Michaels, Eos, 75(25), 281, 284-285, June 21, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug28

"Recent Warming in Global Temperature Series," P.D. Jones (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(12), 1149-1152, June 15, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug29

"Gobi Dust Storms and The Great Green Wall," F. Parungo (Air Resour. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), Z. Li et al., ibid., 21(11), 999-1002, June 1, 1994.

The recent decrease in dust storms downwind of the Gobi Desert may be due to vast forests planted across the northern arid lands of China, and could result in surface warming due to increased atmospheric water vapor and albedo.

Item #d94Aug30

"Next Step for Weekday Warming," D.H. Lenschow (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), Nature, 369(6477), 193, May 19, 1994.

If weekly variations in albedo, infrared radiation, or rainfall could be found, they would support observations of a weekly temperature cycle in the Northern Hemisphere, and would suggest the possibility of deducing anthropogenic effects before climate change occurred.

Item #d94Aug31

"Consistency in Long-Term Observations of Oceans and Ice from Space," I.H.H. Zabel (Byrd Polar Res. Ctr., Ohio State Univ., Columbus OH 43210), K.C. Jezek, J. Geophys. Res., 99(C5), 10,109-10,120, May 15, 1994.

Addresses the physics of the small frequency and viewing angle differences between the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) and the special sensor microwave imager (SSMI) to explain brightness differences of as much as 14K in polar regions.

Item #d94Aug32

"Rising Temperatures in the Subtropical North Atlantic Ocean over the Past 35 Years," G. Parrilla (Inst. Español de Oceanografia, Corazón de Maria 8, 28002 Madrid, Spain), A. Lavín et al., Nature, 369(6475), 48-51, May 5, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)

Item #d94Aug33

"A Possible Influence of Recent Polar Stratospheric Coolings on the Troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere Winter," K. Kodera (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), K. Yamazaki, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(9), 809-812, May 1, 1994.

Changes in circulation associated with cooling trends in the stratosphere are compared with those triggered by heating due to volcanic aerosols, considered as a prototype of response to external forcing. Changes associated with increasing CO2 may be very different from those considered in the 1990 IPCC assessment.

Item #d94Aug34

Two items from Intl. J. Climatol., 14(4), May 1994:

"Recent Climate Variability in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula," J.C. King (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), 357-369. Surface air temperature records from the west coast show more interannual variability and stronger long-term warming trends than elsewhere in Antarctica, possibly due to locally strong coupling between temperatures and sea-ice extent, and to ocean temperature or circulation.

"Spatial and Temporal Variations of the January Circumpolar Vortex over the Northern Hemisphere," R.E. Davis (Dept. Environ. Sci., Univ. Virginia, Charlottesville VA 22903), S.R. Benkovic, 415-428. Principal component analysis of 1947-1990 data indicates that the January circumpolar vortex has expanded over the past two decades, contrary to an expected decrease in meridonal temperature gradient as trace gases increase.

Item #d94Aug35

"Quantifying Global Warming from the Retreat of Glaciers," J. Oerlemans (Inst. Atmos. Res., Utrecht Univ., Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, Neth.), Science, 264(5156), 243-245, Apr. 8, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)

Item #d94Aug36

"A GCM Simulation of Global Climate Trends: 1950-1988," I.N. Smith (CSIRO, Pvt.. Bag 1, Mordialloc 3195, Australia), J. Clim., 7(5), 732-744, May 1994. (See GCCD, p. 10, July.)

Item #d94Aug37

"Global Increase of SF6 Observed in the Atmosphere," M. Maiss (Inst. Umweltphys., Univ. Heidelberg, Neuenheimer Feld 366, D-69120 Heidelberg, Ger.), I. Levin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(7), 569-572, Apr. 1, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 8, July.)

Item #d94Aug38

"Detecting Climate Change Concurrent with Deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which Way Has It Gone?" P.-S. Chu (Sch. Ocean & Earth Sci. & Technol., 2525 Correa Rd., HIG 331, Honolulu HI 96822), Z.-P. Yu, S. Hastenrath, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 75(4), 579-583, Apr. 1994.

Examined monthly mean outgoing longwave radiation and monthly rainfall over the last 15 years. There is little indication for a rainfall increase associated with deforestation, but there is a strong signal of enhanced convection in the part of the basin that contributes the most to total precipitation.

Item #d94Aug39

"Hydro-Climatological Trends in the Continental United States, 1948-88," D.P. Lettenmaier (Dept. Civ. Eng., Univ. Washington, Seattle WA 98195), E.F. Wood, J.R. Wallis, J. Clim., 7(4), 586-607, Apr. 1994.

Data from the Historical Climatology Network and a stream gauge network show strong spatial and seasonal structure in trends, including increases in March temperatures, in autumn precipitation in the central U.S., and in winter streamflow in the north-central states; and changes in the temperature range.

Item #d94Aug40

"Northward Migration of Permafrost Along the Mackenzie Highway and Climatic Warming," Y.T.J. Kwong (Natl. Hydrol. Res. Ctr., 11 Innovation Blvd., Saskatoon SK S7N 3H5, Can.), T.Y. Gan, Clim. Change, 26(4), 399-419, Apr. 1994.

Field surveys show that the southern limit of the permafrost migrated northward by about 120 km during the past three decades. The region also experienced warming from 1949 to 1989 that could have led to the observed migration.

Item #d94Aug41

"Is the Radiation Climate in the Baltic Sea Region Changing?" V. Russak (Inst. Astrophys. & Atmos. Phys., Toravere, EE2444 Estonia), Ambio, 23(2), 160-163, Mar. 1994.

Measurements for the past 30 years show decreases in direct solar radiation, global radiation, reflected radiation, and atmospheric transparency; and increases in annual values of net radiation, its long-wave component, and low cloudiness. Concludes that relatively rapid anthropogenic changes in atmospheric composition are responsible.

Item #d94Aug42

"Climate Change in China," Z. Zhao (Clim. Res. Ctr., Chin. Acad. Meteor. Sci., Baishiqiaolu No. 46, 100081 Beijing, China), World Resour. Rev., 6(1), 125-147, Mar. 1994.

A review for the last 100 years indicates a warming of 0.5-0.7oC, with a substantial effect from urbanization. Calculations by a simple model of global social-economic development and climatic impact (referenced to several GCMs) project from 1990 to 2100 a temperature increase of 3.0oC and a precipitation increase of 9%, resulting from human activity.

Item #d94Aug43

"Trends in Elemental Concentrations of Fine Particles at Remote Sites in the United States of America," R.A. Eldred (Crooker Nuclear Lab., Univ. Calif., Davis CA 95616), T.A. Cahill, Atmos. Environ., 28(5), 1009-1019, Mar. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 5, July.)

Item #d94Aug44

Two items from Beitr. Phys. Atmos., 67(1), Feb. 1994:

"Solar Radiation in Germany: Observed Trends and an Assessment of Their Causes. Part I: Regional Approach," B. Liepert (Meteor. Inst. Univ. München, Theresienstr. 37, D-80333 München, Ger.), P. Fabian, H. Grassl, 15-29. Observations of daily global solar radiation showed a decline of 3.7% per decade in the last 15 to 39 years. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of changes in cloud parameters and clear sky turbidity are mainly responsible for the trend.

". . .Part II: Detailed Trend Analysis for Hamburg," G.C. Grabbe (M. Planck Inst. Meteor., Bundesstr. 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Ger.), H. Grassl, 31-37. Diffuse solar radiation, an indicator for trends in solar irradiance, generally decreased from 1964 to 1989 due to measures to clean the air. However, from 1975 to 1987 it increased slightly due to a doubling of optically active aerosol particles in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Item #d94Aug45

Two items from Clim. Change, 26(1), Jan. 1994:

"Long Term (100 yr) Climatic Trends for Agriculture at Selected Locations in Canada," A. Bootsma (Agric. Canada, Bldg. 74, Ottawa ON K1A 0C6, Can.), 65-88. Studied 17 annual climatic parameters for five locations, and calculated forage aridity indices, first fall frosts, growing degree-days, and growing season length. Climatic attributes were extremely variable, making detection of warming or cooling trends difficult.

"Global Radiation Climate Change at Seven Sites Remote from Surface Sources of Pollution," G. Stanhill (Dept. Agric. Meteor., Agric. Res. Organiz., Bet Dagan, Israel), S. Moreshet, 89-103. Measurements in 1958, 1965, 1975 and 1985 indicated an annual decrease of 17.67 MJ m-2 yr-1 (0.56 W m-2). Results confirm earlier findings using data from the World Radiation Network, and show that this result cannot be attributed only to local sources of pollution.

Item #d94Aug46

"The Volcanic Signal in Goddard Institute for Space Studies Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," A. Robock (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Maryland, College Pk. MD 20742), Y. Liu, J. Clim., 7(1), 44-55, Jan. 1994. (See GCCD, p. 7, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug47

"Climate and Environmental Change at High Northern Latitudes," L. Kullman (Dept. Phys. Geog., Umeå Univ., S-901 87 Umeå, Swed.), Progr. Phys. Geog., 18(1), 124-135, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug48

"Pre-Industrial Particulate Emissions and Carbon Sequestration from Biomass Burning in North America," J.S. Clark (Dept. Bot., Duke Univ., Durham NC 27706), P.D. Royall, Biogeochem., 24(1), 35-51, Jan. 1994.

Analysis of spatial trends from sediment charcoal suggests that total emissions of large (>10 µm diameter) charcoal particles decreased by a factor of three during the twentieth century.

Item #d94Aug49

"Temperature Trends at Coastal Stations in Eastern Canada," M.R. Morgan (CLIMARCON, 32 Rocklin Dr., Dartmouth NS B2X 2S1, Can.), K.F. Drinkwater, R. Pocklington, Clim. Bull., 27(3), 135-153, Dec. 1993.

In contrast to recent warming over continental Canada, air temperatures have declined from maxima in the 1940s and 1950s in the Maritime Provinces, in Newfoundland, along the Labrador Coast, and on Baffin Island . This decline corresponds to similar declines in sea surface temperature in much of the North Atlantic.

Item #d94Aug50

"Comparison of Trends in the Tropospheric and Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths in the Antarctic," A. Herber (Wegener Inst. Polar & Mar. Res., Postfach 60 01 49, D-14401 Potsdam, Ger.), L.W. Thomason et al., J. Geophys. Res., 98(D10), 18,441-18,447 Oct. 20, 1993. (See GCCD, p. 8, June 1994.)

Item #d94Aug51

"Linear Trends of Temperature at Intermediate and Deep Layers of the North Atlantic and the North Pacific Oceans: 1957-1981," J.I. Antonov (State Hydrol. Inst., St. Petersburg, Russia), J. Clim., 6(10), 1928-1942, Oct. 1993. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994.)

Item #d94Aug52

"Climate Implications of Observed Changes in Ozone Vertical Distributions at Middle and High Latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere," W.-C. Wang (Atmos. Sci. Res. Ctr., 100 Fuller Rd., Albany NY 12205), Y.-C. Zhuang, R.D. Bojkov, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(15), 1567-1570, Aug. 6, 1993. (See GCCD, p. 4, May 1994.)

Specialized Papers

Item #d94Aug53

"Solar Radiation and Surface Temperature in Shanghai City and Their Relation to Urban Island Intensity," C.S. Djen (Dept. Geog., E. China Normal Univ., Shanghai 200062, China), S. Jingchun, W. Lin, Atmos. Environ., 28(12), 2119-2127, July 1994.

Item #d94Aug54

Three items from J. Clim., 7(6), June 1994:

"Improved Global Sea Surface Temperature Analyses Using Optimum Interpolation," R.W. Reynolds (NWS, NOAA, 5200 Authority Rd., Camp Springs MD 20746), T.M. Smith, 929-948.

"Optimal Averaging of Seasonal Sea Surface Temperatures and Associated Confidence Intervals (1860-1989), T.M. Smith (addr. immed. above), R.W. Reynolds, C.F. Ropelewski, 949-964.

"Homogenizing Long Norwegian Precipitation Series," I. Hanssen-Bauer (Norwegian Meteor. Inst., POB 43--Blindern, 0313 Oslo 3, Nor.), E.J. Forland, 1001-1013.

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