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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d94Aug112

The following three reports have been produced by the International Energy Agency of OECD. The first two are among a series of quadrennial reviews of the policies of OECD member countries. Energy Policies of IEA Countries, a summary volume including all of this year's reviews (Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, U.K., U.S.), will be published this year.

Energy Policies: The Federal Republic of Germany, 1994 Review. Germany should assess the contribution and cost-effectiveness of measures it plans to use to achieve greenhouse gas targets, and be prepared to take additional steps if necessary. Suggests reform of coal policies, and improved energy efficiency in the industrial and transportation sectors.

Energy Policies: The United Kingdom, 1994 Review. The U.K. should be able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000, and has already implemented some novel policies, particularly in restructuring the electricity industry. However, energy use is growing rapidly in the energy sector, and steps needed in other sectors to counter these greenhouse gas emissions could incur greater costs or require more intervention.

Energy in Developing Countries: A Sectoral Analysis, 1994, $42/FF290/DM75. Examines recent trends in energy demand in 21 of the largest energy consumers in Asia, Latin America and Africa. Improved energy efficiency provides the greatest potential for limiting increases in energy demand in the developing countries without compromising development aspirations. The transitions from biomass consumption by households to commercial energy will be a major factor driving future energy consumption.

Item #d94Aug113

This and the following report outline ways in which the World Bank is changing how it does business in the energy sector. Obtain from World Bank Book Store, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433 (202-473-2941), or designated distributors in various countries.

The World Bank's Role in the Electric Power Sector: Policies for Effective Institutional, Regulatory, and Financial Reform, 84 pp., 1994, $6.95. Recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries.

Energy Efficiency and Conservation in the Developing World: The World Bank's Role, 104 pp., 1994, $6.95. Explores why energy demand and production in developing countries are up, but efficiencies of production and consumption are falling behind. Identifies factors that account for differences in efficiency between developing and industrial countries, and sets forth strategies to promote efficiency.

Item #d94Aug114

A New Power Base: Renewable Energy Policies for the Nineties and Beyond, K. Kozloff, R. Dower, 196 pp., 1994, $24.95. WRI (World Resour. Inst.) Publications, POB 4852, Hampden Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800-822-0504 or 410-516-6963); Drake Marketing Services, St. Fagan's Rd., Fairwater, Cardiff, Wales CF5 3AE, UK (tel: 02-22-56033).

Identifies economic, regulatory and institutional barriers to greater reliance on renewable sources and evaluates various public policy strategies for overcoming these hurdles.

Item #d94Aug115

Energy for Tomorrow's World: A Canadian Perspective, 1994, 12 pp., Can$10. Energy Council of Canada, 30 Colonnade Rd., S. 400, Nepean ON K2E 7J6, Can. (613-952-6469).

Interprets the findings of the recent World Energy Council report in terms of their relevance to the Canadian energy situation. The unilateral imposition of a carbon tax in Canada for stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions is not necessary or appropriate at this time. Proposes an industry-driven task force to explore strategies for addressing Canada's responsibilities in assisting developing countries, while fostering its commercial interests.

Item #d94Aug116

Obtain the following from ACEEE (American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy), 2140 Shattuck Ave., S. 202, Berkeley CA 94704 (510-549-9914).

Market Transformation Strategies to Promote End-Use Efficiency, S. Nadel, H. Geller, 50 pp., 1994, $10. Market transformation is a process by which the energy efficiency of all new appliances, buildings, vehicles or other technologies increases over a period of years. Presents a conceptual framework; discusses policies; gives examples.

Energy Choices Revisited: An Examination of the Costs and Benefits of Maine's Energy Policy, ACEEE et al., 150 pp., 1994, $30. In this state, which has been a leader in the development of energy-efficiency technologies, alternative energy policies have helped limit utility rate increases. The renewable energy and energy efficiency industries have provided jobs and reduced emissions.

Energy Savings and Job Impacts from the Proposed Energy Tax, S. Laitner, 20 pp., 1993, $6. Uses the energy tax proposed by the Clinton Administration as an example to illustrate the importance of considering consumer response and of reducing energy use. Disputes the claim that a broad-based energy tax might hurt the economy.

Federal Energy Subsidies: Energy, Environmental, and Fiscal Impacts, D.N. Koplow, 91 pp., 1993, $20. Analysis of 1989 data (the most recent that is suitable for this study) shows that U.S. federal subsidies favor energy supply resources over energy efficiency by a 35-to-1 ratio, wasting taxpayer money and contributing to pollution.

Item #d94Aug117

Other Nations' Policies to Reduce Oil and Coal Use in Transport and Industry (GAO/RCED-93-139), 71 pp., May 1993. U.S. General Accounting Office, POB 6015, Gaithersburg MD 20877 (202-275-6241).

Discusses factors that influence the type and amount of energy that other nations use, and trends in Canada, France, Germany, Japan and South Korea. Examines policies and programs those countries use to promote efficient use of fuel.

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