February 28, 2007
GCRIO Program Overview
Our extensive collection of documents.
Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1993
Estimating Global Mean Temperature Anomalies," R.F. Gunst (Dept.
Statistical Sci., Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas TX 75275), S. Basu, R.
Brunell, J. Clim., 6(7), 1368-1374, July 1993.
Defines global mean temperature and investigates the adequacy of using
weighted average anomalies to estimate a global mean anomaly, with special
emphasis on gridding and data reuse.
Temperatures and the Atmospheric Electrical Circuit," C. Price (NASA
Goddard Inst. Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York NY 10025),
Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(13), 1363-1366, July 9, 1993.
Presents evidence that global thunderstorm activity is nonlinearly related
to diurnal, seasonal and interannual temperature variations, and that variations
of ionospheric potential measured at a single location may indicate global
surface temperature fluctuations.
Two items from J.
Clim., 6(6), June 1993:
"The Effects of Imperfect Spatial and Temporal Sampling on Estimates of
the Global Mean Temperature: Experiments with Model Data," R.A. Madden
(NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), D.J. Shea et al., 1057-1066. Shows that
information on the spatial sampling problem derived from model output can also
be determined using a simple statistical sampling equation and a simple Monte
Carlo experiment. The latter techniques could be applied to observed global-mean
"Precision Lower Stratospheric Temperature Monitoring with the MSU:
Technique, Validation, and Results 1979-1991," R.W. Spencer (Code ES43,
Marshall Space Flight Ctr., Huntsville AL 35812), J.R. Christy, 1194-1204.
Microwave Sounding Unit data from the TIROS-N series of satellites are
intercalibrated to provide a continuous global record over the period.
Comparison with radiosonde data shows that the sondes are 0.21·C cooler;
causes of the discrepancy are discussed.
Correlations of Interdecadal Variation in Global Surface Temperatures,"
M.E. Mann (Dept. Geol., Yale Univ., POB 6666, New Haven CT 06511), J. Park, Geophys.
Res. Lett., 20(11), 1055-1058, June 7, 1993.
Using multi-taper coherence estimates from 140-year records, finds that
correlations between hemispheres are significant at >95% confidence for most
of the frequency band between 0.06 and 0.24 cycles per year. Other relationships
"An Evaluation of
Climate Change in Phoenix Using an Automatic Synoptic Climatological Approach,"
S. Cheng (Dept. Geog., Univ. Delaware, Newark DE 19716), L.S. Kalkstein, World
Resour. Rev., 5(2), 180-189, June 1993.
Uses a synoptic climatological categorization based on principal components
analysis and clustering analysis to examine trends over the past 40 years. Mean
temperatures within the four air mass groups have increased 0.9-3.0·C;
these changes are closely related to growth in the Phoenix area over the period.
Temperature Record from Fitzroya cupressoides Tree Rings in Southern
South America," A. Lara, R. Villalba, Science,
260(5111), 1104-1106, May 21, 1993. (See Global Climate Change
Digest, p. 87, June 1993).
Temperatures: Diurnal and Seasonal Trends," M.J. Salinger (Nat. Inst.
Atmos. Res., POB 3047, Wellington, N.Z.), J. Hay et al., Geophys. Res. Lett.,
20(10), 935-938, May 21, 1993.
Temperature trends in the region differ from those documented for Northern
Hemisphere land areas, where warming has occurred mainly through increases in
minimum temperatures. Results suggest that sulfate aerosol effects may be less
important in the Southern Hemisphere.
"Recent Changes in
the North American Arctic Boundary Layer in Winter," R.S. Bradley (Dept.
Geol., Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003), F.T. Keimig, H.F. Diaz, J.
Geophys. Res., 98(D5), 8851-8858, May 20, 1993.
Radiosonde data show a systematic reduction in midwinter surface-based
inversion depths over the past few decades, along with a rise in surface
temperature. The changes are significant for studies of Arctic haze.
"Global Warming and
the Problem of Testing for Trend in Time Series Data," W.A. Woodward (Dept.
Statistical Sci., Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas TX 75275), H.L. Gray, J.
Clim., 6(5), 953-962, May 1993.
Provides evidence from autoregressive moving average models to show that
tests for trend of the form Yt = a + bt + Et, often applied to global warming,
should be used with caution to predict future behavior.
Greenhouse and Washington, D.C., Weather," B.R. Doe (USGS, Reston, Va.),
Eos, 227-228, May 18, 1993.
Considers the preferential setting of records for daily high temperature
over those for low temperature as an indication of the greenhouse effect.
Extratropical Circulation Anomalies and Recent January Land Surface Temperature
Trends," M.A. Palecki (Dept. Geog., Univ. Nebraska, Lincoln NE 68588), D.J.
Leathers, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(9), 819-822, May 5, 1993.
Demonstrates that long-term January temperature trends are strongly related
to decadal-scale variations in extratropical mid-tropospheric circulation modes.
"Change in Global
Temperature: A Statistical Analysis," G.R. Richards (Nat. Assoc.
Manufacturers, 1331 Pennsylvania Ave. NW, S. 1500-N, Washington DC 20004), J.
Clim., 6(3), 546-559, Mar. 1993.
Investigates several issues using statistical techniques that impose minimal
restrictions on the data. Finds, among other things, that the global temperature
increase since the last century is systematic (not a result of random
fluctuations). Multivariate tests for causality show that atmospheric CO2
is a significant forcing factor.
Temperature Trends over the Globe, 1958-1989," A.H. Oort (GFDL, Princeton
Univ., POB 308, Princeton NJ 08542), H. Liu, ibid.,
6(2), 292-307, Feb. 1993.
Evaluates a time series composed of soundings from the global radiosonde
network (700-800 stations), and compares it to results derived earlier from a
subset of those stations and to satellite microwave sounder data.
"Are There Any
Changes in the Warming Influence of Moscow?" L.V. Klimenko, Soviet
Meteor. Hydrol., No. 1, 77-78, 1992. (English translation; Allerton Press.)
Analysis of air temperature data in and around Moscow shows that the warming
influence of Moscow stopped increasing after the 1960s. Discusses
previously-reported temperature analyses in light of this result.
Climate Changes in Japan after 1900," T. Yonetani (Nat. Res. Inst. Earth
Sci., Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 70(6),
1125-1136, Dec. 1992.
Reports analyses of temperature and sea-level pressure using the Lepage
test, which reveals several discontinuous changes since 1900.
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