February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1993
Two items from Nature,
364(6434), July 15, 1993 (see Research News):
"The Oceans and Global Warming," A.J. Weaver (Sch. Ocean Sci.,
Univ. Victoria, POB 1700, Victoria BC V8W 2Y2, Can.), 192-193. Discusses results
of the following paper, emphasizing the importance of oceans in climate change
and the large uncertainties surrounding the atmosphere's role.
"Century-Scale Effects of Increased Atmospheric CO2 on the
Ocean-Atmosphere System," S. Manabe (GFDL, Princeton Univ., POB 308,
Princeton NJ 08542), R.J. Stouffer, 215-218. Used a coupled ocean-atmosphere
climate model to study the evolution of the world's climate over the next 500
years, with either a doubling or quadrupling of CO2 concentrations.
Global surface mean air temperature increases by about 3.5·C and 7·C,
respectively. In the latter case, the ocean settles into a new stable state in
which the thermohaline circulation has ceased, with profound impacts on the
carbon cycle and biogeochemistry of the coupled system.
of the Competing Climatic Effects of SO2 and CO2," Y.J. Kaufman
(NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M.-D. Chou, J. Clim.,
6(7), 1241-1252, July 1993.
A detailed, 2-D model representation of the impacts of SO2 emissions on
climate through enhanced cloud formation indicates that this cooling mechanism
can currently counteract 50% of CO2 greenhouse warming. Projections
are made into the next century using IPCC emission scenarios. The complete
removal of SO2 from emissions (such as to control acid rain) leads to a warming
surge of 0.4·C in the following few years.
Assessments of Future Climate Conditions," M.I. Budyko (State Hydrol.
Inst.), Soviet Meteorol. Hydrol., No. 5, 1-6, 1992. (English
translation; Allerton Press.)
Discusses methods for calculating the accuracy of assessments of expected
climate changes, especially by regions, a topic generally overlooked by
non-Russian researchers. Presents data demonstrating the reliability of climate
projections based on analogs to warm epochs of the past.
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