February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 9, SEPTEMBER 1993
IMPACTS OF ELEVATED CO2
Special Issue: Vegetatio,
104, Jan. 1993 (Kluwer Academic Publishers) contains 33 papers from the
International Workshop on CO2 and the Biosphere (Nov. 1991).
Most report specific studies on individual species, but some have broader
applicability such as "Plant Responses to Past Concentrations of CO2"
(by F.I. Woodward) and "Environmental Policy and the Greenhouse Effect"
(by J.B. Weenink).
Three items from Plant,
Cell & Environ., 16(5), June 1993:
"Effects of Increased CO2 Concentration and Temperature on
Growth and Yield of Winter Wheat at Two Levels of Nitrogen Application,"
R.A.C. Mitchell (Rothamsted Exper. Sta., Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK), V.J.
Mitchell et al., 521-529. The productivity of wheat grown in chambers under
light and temperature conditions typical of the U.K. was stimulated at elevated
CO2 (692 mM/M). In contrast to other studies, there was no
interaction with temperature.
"Growth and Maintenance Components of Leaf Respiration of Cotton Grown
in Elevated Carbon Dioxide Partial Pressure," R.B. Thomas (Bot. Dept., Duke
Univ., Durham NC 27706), C.D. Reid et al., 539-546. Elevated CO2 (65
Pa) over 30 days stimulated biomass production (107%) and net photosynthetic
"Facility for Studying the Effects of Elevated Carbon Dioxide
Concentration and Increased Temperature on Crops," D.W. Lawlor (Rothamsted
Exper. Sta., Harpenden, Herts AL5 2JQ, UK), R.A.C. Mitchell et al., 603-608. The
semi-controlled plant growth facility simulates radiation and temperature
conditions in the field. Experiments with winter wheat are described.
"Response of the
Biosphere to the Changing Global Environment: Evidence from Historic Record of
Biotic Metabolism," C.A.S. Hall (Coll. Environ. Sci., State Univ. New York,
Syracuse NY 13210), H. Tian, Y. Qi, World Resour. Rev., 5(2),
207-213, June 1993.
Derives a normalized CO2 curve for yearly biotic metabolism,
corrected for seasonal variations in fossil fuel use and for oceanic exchange.
Although both photosynthesis and respiration have increased since the early
1970s, their ratio has not changed, suggesting that the CO2
sequestered by photosynthesis is being balanced by the CO2 released
Two items from Plant,
Cell & Environ., 16(3), Apr. 1993:
"The Effects of Enhanced Ozone and Enhanced Carbon Dioxide
Concentrations on Biomass, Pigments and Antioxidative Enzymes in Spruce Needles
(Picea abies L.)," A. Polle (Inst. Forstbot. & Baumphysiol., A.
Ludwigs Univ., Werderring 8, D-7800 Freiburg i.Br., Ger.), T. Pfirrmann et al.,
311-316. Observation of five-year-old spruce trees exposed for one growing
season in environmental chambers suggests that elevated CO2 reduces
their tolerance to oxidative stress.
"NMR Imaging of Root Water Distribution in Intact Vicia faba L.
Plants in Elevated Atmospheric CO2," P.A. Bottomley (GE Res. &
Devel. Ctr., Schenectady NY 12309), H.H. Rodgers, S.A. Prior, 335-338. Results
suggest that inhibition of water loss from upper roots and lower stems in
elevated CO2 may be a mitigating factor in assessing the deleterious
effects on crops during dry periods.
"Effects of Doubled
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Concentration on the Responses of Assimilation and
Conductance to Humidity," J.A. Bunce (Clim. Stress Lab., USDA-ARS Agric.
Res. Ctr., 10300 Baltimore Ave., Beltsville MD 20715), ibid., 16(2),
189-197, Mar. 1993.
Reports experiments conducted on amaranth, soybean, sunflower and orchard
grass grown in controlled environment chambers or outdoors.
"A Strategy for
Estimating the Impact of CO2 Fertilization on Soil Carbon Storage,"
K. Harrison (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), W. Broecker,
Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 7(1), 69-80, Mar. 1993.
Develops estimates of carbon turnover rates based on soil radiocarbon
measurements, as a step toward exploring the possible impact of CO2
fertilization on the global humus inventory, a candidate for the "missing"
"The Impact of
Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Stomatal Density: Observations
from Quercus robur Lammas Leaves," D.J. Beerling (Dept. Plant Sci.,
Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G. Chaloner, Annals Bot.,
71(3), 231-235, Mar. 1993.
Comparison of leaves formed on shoots of plants from three locations in the
U.K. shows that temperature overrides the influence of irradiance density and of
small seasonal variations in CO2. These results are valuable for
interpreting observed stomatal density changes through the Quaternary, and
projecting future atmospheric influences.
Deciduous Trees to Elevated Atmospheric CO2: Productivity,
Phytochemistry, and Insect Performance," R.L. Lindroth (Dept. Entymol.,
Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), K.K. Kinney, C.L. Platz, Ecology,
74(3), 763-777, Mar. 1993.
Reports experiments on quaking aspen, red oak and sugar maple, with the
leaf-feeding insects gypsy moth and forest tent caterpillar. Results illustrate
that tree productivity and chemistry, and the performance of associated insects,
will change under CO2 atmospheres predicted for the next century.
Aerial Fertilization Effect of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment in
Tree-Ring Chronologies," D.A. Graybill (Lab. Tree-Ring Res., Univ. Arizona,
Tucson AZ 85721), S.B. Idso, Global Biogeochem. Cycles,
7(1), 81-96, Mar. 1993.
The growth-promoting effects of the historical increase in CO2
are not yet evident in tree-ring records of species which allocate yearly
biomass additions among all plant parts. However, species for which most new
biomass goes into cambrial enlargement show a 60% growth increase over the past
two centuries. Discusses implications for analyzing tree ring trends.
Interactions in Elevated CO2 Environments," D.E. Lincoln (Dept.
Biol. Sci., Univ. S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208), E.D. Fajer, R.H. Johnson,
Trends Ecol. & Evolution, 8(2), 64-68, Feb. 1993.
Review with 46 references. Examines how changes in plant quality (such as
toughness and leaf chemical content) would alter the dynamics of the three-way
Responds to the Glacial Cycle of Environmental Change," D.J. Beerling
(Dept. Plant Sci., Univ. Sheffield, POB 601, Sheffield SI0 2UQ, UK), W.G.
Chaloner et al., Proc. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B--Biol. Sci., 251(1331),
133-138, Feb. 22, 1993.
Presents the first record of stomatal density from fossil leaves extending
over 140 ka. Stomatal density decreased in response to long-term increases in
atmospheric CO2, implying that relaxation of low-CO2
stress has enabled terrestrial plants to exhibit an adaptive response to limited
water availability by reducing stomatal density.
Status, Seed Size, and Responses of Tree Seedlings to CO2, Light,
and Nutrients," F.A. Bazzaz (Dept. Organismic Biol., Harvard Univ.,
Cambridge MA 02138), S.L. Miao, Ecology, 74(1), 104-112, Jan.
This study on six New England deciduous forest tree species emphasizes the
importance of plant species and other environmental factors in modifying the
response of plants to elevated CO2, and suggests that seedling
regeneration in New England forests may be altered in a future high-CO2
"Expansion of C4
Ecosystems as an Indicator of Global Ecological Change in the Late Miocene,"
T.E. Cerling (Dept. Geol., Univ. Utah, Salt Lake City UT 84112), Y. Wang, J.
Quade, Nature, 361(6410), Jan. 28, 1993.
Studies of paleovegetation from paleosols, and of paleodiet from fossil
tooth enamel indicate a rapid expansion of C4 biomass starting 7 to 5 million
years ago. Proposes that the global expansion of C4 biomass may be related to
lower atmospheric CO2 levels because C4 photosynthesis is favored
over C3 photosynthesis at low CO2.
Three items from Plant,
Cell & Environ., 16(1), Jan. 1993:
"Mathematical Models of the Photosynthetic Response of Tree Stands to
Rising CO2 Concentrations and Temperatures," R.E. McMurtrie
(Sch. Biol. Sci., Univ. New South Wales, POB 1, Kensington, NSW 2033,
Australia), Y.-P. Wang, 1-13. A commissioned review comparing two published
models of canopy photosynthesis, MAESTRO and BIOMASS, which differ in the level
of detail used to represent canopy structure and the radiation environment.
"Feedback Limitation of Photosynthesis of Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Grown in Elevated CO2," F.X. Socias, H. Medrano, T.D. Sharkey
(Dept. Bot., Univ. Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706), 81-86. Photosynthesis was
unaffected by elevated CO2, apparently because of feedback
inhibition as judged by a lack of response to removing O2 from the airstream.
"Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment on Early Growth of
Vivia faba, a Plant with Large Cotyledons," K.M. Radoglou, P.G.
Jarvis (Inst. Ecol., Darwin Bldg., Univ. Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JU, UK),
93-98. After 45 days, there were no positive effects of CO2
enrichment on seedling growth. In contrast to results from similar experiments,
it seems that the initial growth is under internal control such that CO2
level has no effect.
"Effects of Elevated
CO2 and Climate Variables on Plants," B.A. Kimball (U.S. Water
Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Bdwy., Phoenix, Ariz. 85040), J.R. Mauney et al., J.
Soil & Water Conserv., 48(1), 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 1993.
A review with 28 references which concludes that, in the absence of climate
change, a doubling of CO2 would probably increase plant growth and
yields by about 30%. Presents other conclusions that will influence agricultural
productivity, water requirements and land use patterns.
and Rate of Crop Transpiration of Greenhouse-Grown Sweet Pepper (Capsicum
annuum L.) as Affected by Carbon Dioxide," E.M. Nederhoff (Glasshouse
Crops Res. Sta., POB 8, 2670 AA Naaldwijk, Neth.), A.A. Rijsdijk, R. Degraaf,
Scientia Horticulturae, 52(4), 283-301, Dec. 1992. Experiments
used CO2 in the range 300-1100 mM/M.
Two items from Agric.
For. Meteor., 60(3-4), Aug. 31, 1992:
"Aboveground Inventory of Sour Orange Trees Exposed to Different
Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations for Three Full Years," S.B. Idso
(U.S. Water Conserv. Lab., 4331 E. Bdwy., Phoenix, Ariz. 85040), B.A. Kimball,
145-151. Trees grown in open-top chambers with an extra 300 cm3/m3 of CO2
reveal a sustained beneficial impact: nearly 100% more branches, 75% more
leaves, and 160% more trunk and branch volume.
"Response of Rice to Carbon Dioxide and Temperature," J.T. Baker
(Agron. Dept., Univ. Florida, Gainesville FL 32611), L.H. Allen Jr., K.J. Boote,
153-166. Rice plants were grown for a season in outdoor, naurally sunlit,
controlled-environment chambers at 330 and 660 mM/M CO2 and daytime
temperatures of 28-40?C. Grain yields were affected much more by
temperature than by CO2, suggesting reduced grain yields are
possible in some areas if air temperatures increase, especially under conditions
of low solar irradiance.
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