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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d93sep1

"Nighttime Warming and the Greenhouse Effect," G. Kukla (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observ., Palisades NY 10964), T.R. Karl, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(8), 1468-1474, Aug. 1993.

Discusses the likelihood that the rise in nighttime and early morning temperatures observed since the 1940s is related to the increase in greenhouse gases. The cooling effect of aerosols derived from SO2 emissions may also be a factor. The inconsistency of the observed trend with simulations by general circulation models in which greenhouse gases are the only variables that change reflects current model deficiencies.

Item #d93sep2

"Common Threads: Research Lessons from Acid Rain, Ozone Depletion and Global Warming," M.E. Kowalok (Off. Sci. & Technol. Policy, Exec. Off. of the President, Washington, D.C.), Environment, 35(6), 14-20, 35-38, July-Aug. 1993.

Gives brief accounts of the research on these three topics, demonstrating that environmental research, despite its unpredictability, has several important characteristics.

Item #d93sep3

"Exploring the Links Between Desertification and Climate Change," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), M. Kelly, ibid., 4-11, 39-44.

The Sahara Desert is spreading southward, but the relative contributions of climate change and land use to this trend are not clear. Before desertification can be stopped, its causes--particularly any self-reinforcing cycles--must be understood. Reviews relevant research and discusses the upcoming Negotiations for the Convention to Combat Desertification.

Item #d93sep4

"The Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Report and Reflection," I.H. Rowlands (London Sch. Econ. & Political Sci.), ibid., 25-34.

Although much was achieved at the Nov. 1992 meeting in Copenhagen, the ozone depletion issue is by no means resolved. Science, economics and politics will be crucial to further developments. The experience gained could prove valuable as the international community attempts to tackle much more complex problems.

Item #d93sep5

"Evidence of the Phase-Out of CFC Use in Europe over the Period 1987-1990," P.G. Simmonds (Dept. Biogeochem., Univ. Bristol, Bristol, UK), D.M. Cunnold et al., Atmos. Environ., 27A(9), 1397-1407, June 1993.

Measurements of the principle CFCs and other radiatively active gases collected at Mace Head, Ireland, provide the first clear evidence that European regulations to phase out CFC production are effective. CCl2F2, CCl3F and CH4 emissions had already declined to about one-third of 1987 levels by the end of 1990.

Item #d93sep6

"Stratospheric Ozone Protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990," C.R. Babst III (Babst, Calland, Clements & Zomnir, P.C.), Air & Waste, 43(8), 1066-1067, Aug. 1993.

Gives a concise summary of current U.S. regulations for phasing out ozone-depleting chemicals, and developing safe alternatives.

Item #d93sep7

Special issue: International Challenges, 13(2), June 1993. (Journal of the Fritdjof Nansen Inst., POB 326, N-1324 Lysaker, Norway.) The following are among seven papers derived from a workshop on international environment and resource agreements (Oslo, Oct. 1992):

"Political Science and the Question of Effectiveness of International Environmental Institutions," M. Levy (Intl. Affairs, Princeton Univ.), 17-35. Surveys views of political scientists and suggests ways to better understand effectiveness.

"Cost-Effective and Efficient International Environmental Agreements," M. Hoel (Dept. Econ., Univ. Oslo), 36-46. Distinguishes between cost-effectiveness and efficiency, and shows how a cost-effective climate agreement could be designed.

"The Role of Scientific Assessments on Climate Change and Ozone Depletion for Negotiations of International Agreements," I.S. Isaksen (Ctr. Intl. Clim. & Energy Res., Oslo), 76-84. Contrasts the relative certainty of scientific knowledge on ozone depletion with the much greater uncertainty regarding climate change.

Item #d93sep8

"Global Warming," M. Hulme (Clim. Res. Unit., Univ. E. Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), Prog. Phys. Geog., 17(1), 81-91, Mar. 1993.

Updates a previous status report of the science of global climate change, focusing on: developments in paleoclimatology as background for interpreting the instrumental temperature record, climate change detection, and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions and associated warming predictions.

Item #d93sep9

"The EPA Science Advisory Board: A Case Study in Institutional History and Public Policy," T.F. Yosi (E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington DC 20005), Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(8), 1476-1481, Aug. 1993.

Using concepts from the fields of history and social science, a former director of the Board analyzes its operation and behavioral properties, and discusses the integration of science and public policy.

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