February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 6, NUMBER 3, MARCH 1993
THE CARBON CYCLE: OCEANIC
Two related items from Nature, 361(6409), Jan. 21, 1993:
"Limits on Growth Rates," J.A. Raven (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ.
Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK), 209-210. Discusses the findings and implications of
the following entry.
"Carbon Dioxide Limitation of Marine Phytoplankton Growth Rates,"
U. Riebesell (Dept. Biol. Sci., Univ. California, Santa Barbara CA 93106), D.A.
Wolf-Gladrow, V. Smetacek, 249-251. Shows that, contrary to current thinking,
diatom growth rate can be limited by the supply of CO2 under optimum conditions.
The doubling in surface water pCO2 levels since the last glaciation
could have stimulated marine productivity, increasing oceanic carbon
sequestration by the biological pump.
Special issue: "Measurement of Dissolved Organic Carbon and
Nitrogen in Natural Waters," J.I. Hedges, C. Lee, Eds., Marine Chem.,
41(1-3), Jan. 1993. (Elsevier Sci. Publishers, POB 211, 1000 AE
The issue begins with a summary by J. Hedges (Sch. Oceanog., WB-10, Univ.
Washington, Seattle WA 98195) of a workshop held July 1991 in Seattle,
Washington, followed by four subgroup reports, five invited background papers,
and twenty data reports.
"JGOFS: Measuring CO2 in the Ocean," A.G. Dickson (Scripps
Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), Eos, p. 546, Dec. 22, 1992. A brief
update on the status and measurement techniques of this coordinated
Two items from Nature, 360(6402), Nov. 26, 1992:
"Frog Ponds and Ocean Iron," S.L. Pimm, 298-299. Discusses the
following entry, which bears on fertilization of the oceans to increase the
uptake of atmospheric CO2.
"Interactions between Food-Web Structure and Nutrients on Pond
Organisms," M.A. Leibold (Dept. Ecol., Univ. Chicago, 1101 E. 57th St.,
Chicago IL 60637), H.M. Wilbur, 341-343. Presents direct experimental evidence
for an association between environmental productivity and the species
composition of herbivores, with implications for how organisms will respond to
abiotic factors such as nutrients that regulate primary productivity.
"Spring Phytoplankton Blooms in the Absence of Vertical Water Column
Stratification," D.W. Townsend (Bigelow Lab., McKown Pt., W. Boothbay
Harbor ME 04575), M.D. Keller et al., Nature, 360(6399), 59ff.,
Nov. 5, 1992.
Although it is widely accepted that the seasonal development of a
thermocline is requisite for the development of the spring bloom, evidence
presented here suggests the bloom can precede and even contribute to development
of the thermocline.
"Ecology of Sea Ice Biota. 2. Global Significance," L. Legendre
(Dept. Biol., Univ. Laval, Quebec City PQ G1K 7P4, Can.), S.F. Ackley et al.,
Polar Biol., 12(3-4), 429-444, Sep. 1992.
Derives new estimates of Arctic and Antarctic production of biogenic carbon,
and discusses implications for climate change and biogeochemical fluxes of
"Reconciling Particulate Organic Carbon Flux and Sediment Community
Oxygen Consumption in the Deep North Pacific," K.L. Smith Jr. (Marine Biol.
Div., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), R.J. Baldwin, P.M. Williams,
Nature, 359(6393), 313-316, Sep. 24, 1992.
Results of prolonged measurements (2.3 years) of flux into the benthic
boundary layer emphasize the importance of extended measurements to elucidating
the carbon cycle in the deep ocean.
"The Role of Benthic Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Oceanic
and Sedimentary Carbon Cycling," D.J. Burdige (Dept. Oceanog., Old Dominion
Univ., Norfolk VA 23529), M.J. Alperin et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(18),
1851-1854, Sep. 23, 1992.
Pore water DOC data and direct benthic flux measurements suggest that marine
sediments represent a significant source of DOC to the oceans.
Two items from Nature, 359(6392), Sep. 17, 1992:
Comment on seawater carbon measurement technique of Ogawa and Ogura, p. 202.
"Short Residence Time of Colloids in the Upper Ocean Estimated from
238U-234Th Disequilibria," S.B. Moran (Woods Hole Oceanog. Inst., Woods
Hole MA 02543), K.O. Buesseler, 221-223. In situ tracer measurements
made near Bermuda suggest that macromolecular colloidal matter has a rapid
turnover rate in the upper ocean.
"Intense Hydrolytic Enzyme Activity on Marine Aggregates and
Implications for Rapid Particle Dissolution," D.C. Smith (Marine Biol.
Res., Scripps Inst. Oceanog., La Jolla CA 92093), M. Simon et al., Nature,
359(6391), 139-142, Sep. 10, 1992.
Results elucidate a biochemical mechanism for large-scale transfer of
organic matter from sinking particles to the dissolved phase.
"Application of an Atmospheric Tracer Model to High Southern
Latitudes," R. Law (Dept. Meteor., Univ. Melbourne, Parkville, Vic., 3052,
Australia), I. Simmonds, W.F. Budd, Tellus, 44B(4), 358-370,
Calculations with the University of Melbourne GCM are used to deduce sources
and sinks of atmospheric CO2. Net sources are found in the Northern Hemisphere
and equatorial regions, and net sinks in the Southern Hemisphere. The latter
result is of interest in view of the uncertainty of CO2 uptake by Southern
"CO2 Transport at the Air-Sea Interface: Numerical Calculations for
a Surface Renewal Model with Coupled Fluxes," L.F. Phillips (Chem. Dept.,
Univ. Canterbury, Christchurch 1, New Zealand), Geophys. Res. Lett.,
19(16), 1667-1670, Aug. 21, 1992.
Calculations show that the magnitude and direction of CO2 flux are strongly
dependent on the temperature of the surface layer of liquid, and that existing
measurements of CO2 fluxes have probably erred on the low side, in the right
direction to account for the current imbalance in the global CO2 budget.
"Use of a Simple Model for Studying Oceanic Tracer Distributions and
the Global Carbon Cycle," U. Siegenthaler (Phys. Inst., Univ. Bern, CH-3012
Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, Switz.), F. Joos, Tellus, 44B(3), 186-207,
The HILDA model combines features of box models and of the box-diffusion
model. Calculations indicate an oceanic uptake of 1.9 Gt C yr-1 in 1980 and a
near-zero net contribution from biota in the past several decades. Performance
is compared to that of other, more complicated models.
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