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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d93jul37

Special Section: "The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)," J. Geophys. Res., 98(D6), June 20, 1993. Contains 10 papers, in addition to the following one, giving details on instruments and their performances.

"The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Mission," C.A. Reber (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.E. Trevathan, 10,643-10,647. Describes the goals, design, performance and data handling for the UARS.

Item #d93jul38

Three items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D6), June 20, 1993:

"A 4-Year Climatology of Stratospheric Ozone from Lidar Measurements at Table Mountain, 34.4·N," I.S. McDermid (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), 10,509-10,515. Presents results of 435 independent profiles, constituting a pre-Pinatubo ozone climatology, and evaluates their quality.

"Absorption of Solar Radiation by O2: Implications for O3 and Lifetimes of N2O, CFCl3, and CF2Cl2," K. Minschwaner (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), R.J. Salawitch, M.B. McElroy, 10,543-10,561. Uses an accurate line-by-line model to evaluate effects of absorption in the Schumann-Runge bands of O2 on UV radiation, along with photochemical calculations.

"Fourier Transform Infrared Studies of the Interaction of HCl with Model Polar Stratospheric Cloud Films," B.G. Koehler (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), L.S. McNeill et al., 10,563-10,571. At temperatures similar to those found in the stratosphere, experiments found no bulk HCl uptake by ice or nitric acid trihydrate.

Item #d93jul39

"In situ Measurements Constraining the Role of Sulphate Aerosols in Mid-Latitude Ozone Depletion," D.W. Fahey, S.R. Kawa et al., Nature, 363(6429), 509-514, June 10, 1993. (See Gen. Int.-Science)

Measurements of stratospheric sulfate aerosol, reactive nitrogen and chlorine concentrations at middle latitudes confirm the importance of aerosol surface reactions that convert active nitrogen to a less active, reservoir form, making mid-latitude stratospheric ozone less vulnerable to active nitrogen and more vulnerable to chlorine species. Increases in aerosol concentration following volcanic eruptions will have only a limited effect on ozone depletion at these latitudes.

Item #d93jul40

Three items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(10), May 21, 1993:

"Raman Dial Measurements for Stratospheric Ozone in the Presence of Volcanic Aerosols," T.J. McGee (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), M. Gross et al., 955-958. A lidar instrument has been modified to permit measurement of ozone profiles between 15 and 50 km, which had been precluded by the presence of Pinatubo aerosols.

"The `Minihole' Event on 6. Feb. 1990: Influence of Mie Scattering on the Evaluation of Spectroscopic Measurements," M. Fiedler (Inst. Umweltphys., INF 366, D-6900 Heidelberg, Ger.), H. Frank et al., 959-962. Demonstrates the sensitivity of ground measurements to polar stratospheric cloud layers, and how they can be corrected to obtain total ozone column data.

"Groundbased Spectroscopic Measurements of Stratospheric NO2 and OClO in Arctic Winter 1989/90," M. Fiedler (address above), H. Frank et al., 963-966.

Item #d93jul41

"Heterogeneous Chemistry on Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds: A Microphysical Estimate of the Extent of Chemical Processing," K. Drdla (Dept. Atmos. Sci., Univ. California, Los Angeles CA 90024), R.P. Turco, S. Elliott, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D5), 8965-8981, May 20, 1993.

A detailed model, which includes nucleation, condensational growth and sedimentation, shows that the presence and surface area of type 1 PSCs early in the winter are crucial in determining ozone depletion.

Item #d93jul42

Two items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(8), Apr. 23, 1993:

"HALOE Antarctic Observations in the Spring of 1991," J.M. Russell III (NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), A.F. Tuck et al., 719-722. Presents observations of O3, CH4, HF, H2O, NO, NO2 and HCl in the Antarctic ozone hole and during its recovery.

"Potential Impact of Combined NOx and SOx Emissions from Future High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft on Stratospheric Aerosols and Ozone," S. Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), J.A. Pyle, 723-726.

A 2-D sulfate aerosol model shows that an aircraft fleet may double the aerosol surface area, leading to a reduction in ozone sensitivity to NOx and an enhancement in sensitivity to chlorine in the lower stratosphere.

Item #d93jul43

"Freezing Points of H2SO4 Aqueous Solutions and Formation of Stratospheric Ice Clouds," H. Ohtake (Geophys. Inst., Univ. Alaska, Fairbanks AK 99775), Tellus, 45B(2), 138-144, Apr. 1993.

New experimental measurements suggest that the formation of ice crystals in polar stratospheric clouds is the result of condensation of water vapor and subsequent freezing of natural H2SO4 aerosols.

Item #d93jul44

Four items from J. Geophys. Res., 98(D4), Apr. 20, 1993:

"A Three-Dimensional Modeling Study of Trace Species in the Arctic Lower Stratosphere during Winter 1989-1990," M.P. Chipperfield (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), D. Cariolle, P. Simon, 7199-7218. Gives extensive results from a series of 10-day integrations with a radiative-dynamical-chemical model that includes representation of heterogeneous processes. The efficiency of the catalytic cycles responsible for ozone loss is analyzed as a function of latitude, altitude and time.

"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. 9. Observations of OClO from April to October 1991," R.W. Sanders (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), S. Solomon et al., 7219-7228. The first spectroscopic measurements of ClO through the Antarctic fall, winter and spring also reveal high levels of OClO and ozone loss during winter, which is likely to increase in the future as atmospheric loadings of Cl and Br compounds rise.

"TOVS Observations of a Stratospheric Cooling during the CHEOPS 3 Campaign: February 4-6, 1990, over Scandinavia," C. Claud (Lab. Météor. Dyn., Ecole Polytech., 91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France), J. Ovarlez et al., 7229-7243. Compares temperature retrievals using an improved inversion technique for satellite measurements to other sources of temperature data. Presents evidence of upper tropospheric forcing partly responsible for ozone loss.

"Inverse Theory for Occultation Measurements. 1. Spectral Inversion," E. Kyrölä (Finnish Meteor. Inst., POB 503, SF-00101 Helsinki, Finland), E. Sihvola et al., 7367-7381. Investigates methods for solving optical occulation measurements made by satellite, emphasizing stellar occulation for monitoring important trace gases. Constructs global distributions of several trace gases.

Item #d93jul45

"Intercomparison of Total Ozone Data from Nimbus 7 TOMS, the Brewer UV Spectrophotometer, and SAOZ UV-Visible Spectrophotometer at High Latitudes Observatory, Sodankylä," E. Kyrö (Finnish Meteor. Inst., Sodankylä Observ., SF-99600, Sodankylä, Finland), Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(7), 571-574, Apr. 9, 1993.

Item #d93jul46

"A Study of the Gas-Phase Reaction of Carbonyl Fluoride with Water," J.S. Francisco (Dept. Chem., Wayne State Univ., Detroit MI 48202), J. Atmos. Chem., 16(3), 285-292, Apr. 1993. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations determine the mechanism and energetics of the homogeneous, hydrolytic reaction.

Item #d93jul47

"Role of Sulphur Photochemistry in Tropical Ozone Changes after the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo," S. Bekki (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), R. Tuomi, J.A. Pyle, Nature, 362(6418), 331-333, Mar. 25, 1993. Model calculations demonstrate that gas-phase sulfur chemistry may have played a part in the tropical ozone perturbations that followed the eruption.

Item #d93jul48

"Evidence for Winter/Spring Denitrification of the Stratosphere in the Nitrate of Antarctic Firn Cores," R. Mulvaney (Brit. Antarctic Surv., High Cross, Madingley Rd., Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK), E.W. Wolff, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D3), 5213-5220, Mar. 20, 1993.

Nitrate peaks that occurred consistently in spring or early summer over that last three decades may be evidence of sedimentation of polar stratospheric clouds, suggesting the possibility of observing past stratospheric conditions over longer time scales from ice cores.

Item #d93jul49

Four items from Geophys. Res. Lett., 20(5), Mar. 5, 1993:

"Chlorine Catalyzed Destruction of Ozone: Implications for Ozone Variability in the Upper Stratosphere," S. Chandra (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), C.H. Jackman et al., 351-354. Differences between observed and 2-D model-calculated values of ozone are improved by changing the partitioning in the Cly family to create a larger reservoir of HCl and reducing ClO.

"Effect of Competitive Adsorption on Polar Stratospheric Cloud Reactions," M. Mozurkewich (Dept. Chem., York Univ., N. York ON M3J 1P3, Can.), 355-358. Laboratory data for reaction rates on ice and nitric acid trihydrate are interpreted in terms of a simple mechanism which assumes that the solid phase is either pure H2O or pure HNO3(H2O)3, and that the state of the surface depends largely on the gas phase composition.

"Laboratory Simulations of PSC Particle Formation," J. Marti (School Phys. Astron., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455), K. Mauersberger, 359-362. Experiments at conditions that approximate those of the stratosphere more closely than in prior studies may help explain recent PSC observations in terms of very young clouds which have not reached equilibrium.

"A Survey and New Measurements of Ice Vapor Pressure at Temperatures between 170 and 250K," J. Marti (address above), K. Mauersberger, 363-366. Extends the range of measured ice vapor pressures by three orders of magnitude, and derives an empirical vapor pressure equation.

Item #d93jul50

"Greenhouse Gases in the Stratosphere," W. Zhong (Blackett Lab., Imperial College Sci. Technol. Med., London SW7 2BZ, UK), J.D. Haigh, J.A. Pyle, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D2), 2995-3004, Feb. 20, 1993.

Simulations with a radiative-photochemical-dynamical 2-D model explore the effect on stratospheric temperatures, and consequent impacts on ozone, of the radiative forcings of changing concentrations of ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and CFCs 11 and 12, for up to 50 model years.

Item #d93jul51

Six items from J. Geophys. Res., 20(2), Feb. 20, 1993:

"A Simulation of the Cerro Hudson SO2 Cloud," M.R. Schoeberl (NASA-Goddard, Greenbelt MD 20771), S.D. Doiron et al., 2949-2955. An isentropic trajectory model shows that the principal stratospheric injection region to be between 11 and 16 km in altitude, and suggests that the lower stratospheric polar and mid-latitude regions are nearly isolated from each other during late August.

"Uptake of Formaldehyde by Sulfuric Acid Solutions: Impact on Stratospheric Ozone," M.A. Tolbert (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO 80309), J. Pfaff et al., 2957-2962. Laboratory experiments suggest that the removal of CH2O from the gas phase can take away a significant source of odd H in the mid- and high-latitude lower stratosphere.

"Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrum of HOCl," J.B. Burkholder (Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), 2963-2974.

"Error Analysis of ClO, O3 and H2O Abundance Profiles Retrieved from Millimeter Wave Limb Sounding Measurements," C.P. Aellig (Inst. Angewandte Phys., Univ. Bern, CH-3012, Bern, Switz.), N. Kämpfer, R.M. Bevilacqua, 2975-2983.

"Estimation of Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Albedo Using Ground-Based Umkehr Measurements," J.J. DeLuisi (ERL, NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), D.U. Longenecker et al., 2895-2993. The estimation method developed may be useful for determining the drift rate of the SBUV calibration.

"Relationship between Total Ozone Amounts and Stratospheric Temperature at Syowa, Antarctica," S. Chubachi (Meteor. Res. Inst., 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan), 3005-3010. Statistical relationships were studied based on data obtained during 1961-1981, and during 1982-1988, the time of ozone depletion in Antarctica.

Item #d93jul52

"A Model Study of ATMOS Observations and the Heterogeneous Loss of N2O5 by the Sulphate Aerosol Layer," R. Toumi (Dept. Chem., Univ. Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), S. Bekki, R. Cox, J. Atmos. Chem., 16(2), 135-144, Feb. 1993.

Item #d93jul53

"Stratospheric N2O5, CH4 and N2O Profiles from IR Solar Occultation Spectra," C. Camy-Peyret (Lab. Phys. Moléculaire, CNRS Univ. P. & M. Curie, Paris, France), J.-M. Flaud et al., ibid., 16(1), 31-40, 1993.

Item #d93jul54

"Simulation of the Effect of Carbon Dioxide Doubling on Stratospheric Ozone," J.F. Mahfouf (UDC, GMGEC, Ctr. Nat. Rech. Meteor., 42 Ave. G. Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse, France), D. Cariolle, J.F. Royer, Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. Ser. II., Mech. Phys. Chim. Sci. de la Terre & Univers., 316(1), 61-68, Jan. 7, 1993. In French.

Two 5-year GCM simulations show cooling increasing with height in the stratosphere, and an increase of ozone due to modified photochemical reaction rates. Results confirm those with 2-D models and emphasize the importance of heterogeneous processes.

Item #d93jul55

Special Section: "Ozone," Current Sci., 63(12), Dec. 25, 1992:

"Seventy Years of Ozone Research," H.U. Dütsch (Swiss Fed. Inst. Technol., CH-8092, Zurich, Switz.), 701-711. A historical review through the present.

"Laboratory Studies of the Photochemistry of Ozone," R.P. Wayne, 711-722. Concentrates on photodissociation.

"Ozone Observations and Research in New Zealand-A Historical Perspective," E. Farkas (80 Ranui Cresc., Wellington 4, N.Z.), 722-727. Discusses measurements in New Zealand and Antarctica starting from 1929, and evidence of a decreasing trend in total ozone from 1975 to 1990.

Item #d93jul56

"An Infrared Study of the UV Photolysis of Chlorine Nitrate Trapped in Various Matrices at 11K," A. DeSaxce (Phys. Molec. & Applic. Lab., Univ. Paris 06, UPR 136, Tour 13, Batiment 76, F-75252 Paris, France), L. Schriver, Chem. Phys. Lett., 199(6), 596-604, Nov. 20, 1992.

Item #d93jul57

"Heterogeneous Chemistry of HBr and HF," D.R. Hanson (NOAA Aeronomy Lab., 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, J. Chem. Phys., 96(23), 9411-9446, Nov. 12, 1992. Experiments on glass and ice surfaces suggest that HBr would be processed efficiently on ice particles.

Item #d93jul58

Special Issue: J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans., 48(5-6), Nov.-Dec. 1992 (Pergamon Press), contains papers from a June 1991 conference on molecular spectroscopic databases, several of which relate to stratospheric ozone chemistry. An overview paper, "The HITRAN Molecular Database: Editions of 1991 and 1992," L.S. Rothman (Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, Lexington MA 01731), et al., pp. 469-507, describes modifications to the HITRAN atmospheric spectroscopic database.

Item #d93jul59

"Effect of Space Rocket Launches on Ozone," I.L. Karol (Main Geophys. Observ., 7 Karbyshev St., St. Petersburg 194018, Russia), Y.E. Ozolin, E.V. Rosanov, Annales Geophysicae-Atmos., Hydros. & Space Sci., 10(10), 810-814, Oct. 1992.

A system of atmospheric gas composition models is used to assess the effects of the U.S. Space Shuttle and Soviet Energy rocket. Concentrations near the exhaust axes may be reduced 10-100% for periods up to four hours, but annually and globally averaged depletion due to an assumed 50 launches per year is less than 1%.

Item #d93jul60

"Buffering of Stratospheric Circulation by Changing Amounts of Tropical Ozone: A Pinatubo Case Study," S. Kinne (NASA-Ames, Moffett Field CA 94035), O.B. Toon, M.J. Prather, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(19), 1927-1930, Oct. 2, 1992.

Evaluates various processes by which Pinatubo aerosols affected lower stratospheric ozone, based primarily on radiation calculations. Resulting upward vertical motion lowered ozone amounts by effectively raising the ozone profile about 2 km, demonstrating the important role of ozone in buffering vertical motion in the tropical lower stratosphere.

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