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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d93jul20

"The Inefficiency and Unfairness of Tradable CO2 Permits," J.D. Erickson (Dept. Agric. Econ., Cornell Univ., Ithaca NY 14850), World Resour. Rev., 5(2), 228-245, 1993.

This analysis illustrates the likelihood of international permit market failure and the unfair and the inefficient consequences of international application of a tradable permit scheme. Suggests promoting the profitability of abatement in the developed world and a restructuring of development aid instead of a single market approach.

Item #d93jul21

"The Cost Effectiveness of CO2 Emission Reduction Achieved by Energy Conservation," K. Blok (Dept. Sci. Technol. Soc., Utrecht Univ., POB 800093, NL-3508 TB Utrecht, Neth.), E. Worrell et al., Energy Policy, 21(6), 656-667, June 1993.

An analysis for the Netherlands incorporating 300 energy conservation techniques shows that the Dutch government's policy to increase energy efficiency by about 20% between 1990 and 2000 is feasible with net negative costs. However, stronger incentives for energy conservation are required.

Item #d93jul22

"Global CO2 Agreements: A Cost-Effective Approach," S. Kverndokk (Res. Dept., Central Bur. Statistics, POB 8131 Dep., N-0033 Oslo, Norway), The Energy J., 14(2), 91-112, 1993.

Under the cost-effective agreement analyzed, industrialized countries would bear all emission reductions; nevertheless developing countries would bear the highest burdens even though they would be allowed to increase emissions. Examines disadvantages of tradable permit systems. An allocation based on historical CO2 emissions is the only simple rule which ensures every region is better off than under uniform percentage reductions.

Item #d93jul23

"Carbon Dioxide Production by the UK Economy: An Input-Output Assessment," P.W. Gay (Dept. Econ., Univ. Keele, Keele ST5 5BG, UK), J.L.R. Proops, Appl. Energy, 44(2), 113-130, 1993.

The model is based on the U.K. Input-Output Tables for 1984, but at a higher level of aggregation. Discusses the possibility of using the model to explore the effect of varying the balance between fossil fuel and other forms of electricity generation, and of changing the composition of final demand for goods and services.

Item #d93jul24

"Carbon Reduction Costs in New England's Power Sector," F. Krause (Energy Environ. Div., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA 94720), J. Busch, J.G. Koomey, Contemporary Policy Issues, 11(2), 100-112, Apr. 1993.

Relies on detailed sectoral studies of costs and resource potentials for demand-side efficiency, cogeneration, renewables and conventional resource options. Shows that New England's power sector can freeze carbon emissions at current levels or reduce carbon emissions while simultaneously decreasing customers' total electricity bills.

Item #d93jul25

"An Updated Shadow Price for CO2," J. Haraden (149 Eleventh St., Del Mar CA 92014), Energy, 18(3), 303-307, Mar. 1993.

Substantially revises a previous model with an improved representation for the assumed linearity of the damages from atmospheric CO2 levels, and with incorporation of an adjustment period for the atmosphere to reach thermal equilibrium with CO2 levels.

Item #d93jul26

"Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions by Means of Hydrogen Energy," P.A. Okken (Netherlands Energy Res. Found., ECN, Petten, Neth.), Intl. Hydrogen Energy, 18(4), 319-323, Apr. 1993.

Uses scenario calculations and sensitivity analyses to discuss economical and technical aspects of two options for producing hydrogen without CO2 emissions: natural gas reforming with CO2 disposal in depleted natural gas reservoirs, and electrolysis using CO2-free electricity.

Item #d93jul27

"Energy Substitution to Reduce Carbon Dioxide in China," J.-P. Huang (Beijing Econ. Res. Inst. of Water Resour. & Elec. Pwr. (BERI), 21 Wenhua Ln., Xidan, Beijing 100031, PRC), Energy, 18(3), 281-287, Mar. 1993.

Gives a detailed analysis of the exploitable potential of hydropower, nuclear power and new energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal, tidal energy), from 1990 to 2020. About 38% of China's total CO2 emission could be eliminated by 2020 through the use of these non-coal sources.

Item #d93jul28

Two articles from The Energy J., 14(1), 1993:

"Growth and Welfare Losses from Carbon Emissions Restrictions: A General Equilibrium Analysis for Egypt," C. Blitzer (The World Bank, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433), R. Eckaus et al. 57-82. Considers some issues not considered in previous analyses. Demonstrates that, while annual emissions constraints have only a modest effect on long-run economic growth rates, they have substantial effect on the achieved levels of GDP and welfare.

"An Analysis of the Macro-Economic Costs of Various CO2 Emission Control Policies in Japan," N. Goto (Faculty Econ., Kanazawa Univ., Ishikawa, Japan 920-11), T. Sawa, 83-110. Application of a long-term general equilibrium model shows that if the economy adjusts efficiently, the macro-economic costs incurred by emission controls are not very large, and that a carbon tax is the most effective method to achieve a proposed target.

Item #d93jul29

"The Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Austria: Policy, Plans and Scenarios," A.E. Hackl (Chair, CO2 Committee, Austria), World Resour. Rev., 4(2), 141-155, 1993.

Summarizes the work of the federally-coordinated Austrian CO2 Committee. Analyzes CO2 emissions by contributing sectors, and effective scenarios for reduction. Specifies actions that are required by utilities and industry, the transport and residential sectors, and local and federal governments.

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