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Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d93apr13

Three items from Environment, 35(2), Mar. 1993:

Commentary: "Nuclear Energy," B. Wolfe (Gen. Electric Nuclear Energy Prog., Monte Sereno, Calif.), 2-3. Although nuclear energy is clearly problematic in the U.S., the perspective on the problems presented in the following article is flawed.

"What Would it Take to Revitalize Nuclear Power in the United States?" M.G. Morgan (Dept. Eng. & Public Pol., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa.), 6-9, 30-32. Despite substantial public opposition, nuclear power is being reconsidered in the U.S. because of greenhouse warming. Discusses six key problems requiring fundamental changes.

"Hard Habits To Break: Energy Conservation Patterns in Sweden," R.E. Löfstedt (IIASA, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria), 10-15, 33-35. Because Sweden's buildings and industries are already highly energy-efficient, only widespread lifestyle changes can save significant amounts of energy. Are Swedes willing to break their energy habits?

Item #d93apr14

"The New Energy Equation for Developing Countries," N. Lenssen (Worldwatch Inst., 1776 Mass. Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036), Environ. Sci. Technol., 27(2), 220-222, Feb. 1993.

The assumption that an expanding energy supply is necessary for raising standards of living has proved unworkable. Instead, developing countries must emphasize energy-efficient technologies, and meet new energy needs with less costly and less ecologically destructive approaches.

Item #d93apr15

Three items from Energy Policy, 21(2), Feb. 1993:

"Wither Renewable Energy Sources?" A. Jagadeesh (Soc. of Sci. for the People, Nellore, India), 98-99. Comments on the place of hydrogen energy among renewable options, and on mechanisms for disseminating renewable energy technology to developing countries.

"External Costs of Electricity Generation," R. Friedrich (Inst. Energiewirtschaft & Rationelle Energieanwendung, Hessbrühlstr. 49a, D-7000 Stuttgart-80, Ger.), A. Voss, 114-122. Challenges the recent estimate by Hohmeyer which concluded that external costs are of the same order of magnitude as internal costs. Offers an alternative analysis based on the situation in Germany.

"CHP Production in Integrated Energy Systems: Examples from Five Swedish Communities," B. Rydén (Dept. Energy Conversion, Chalmers Univ. Technol., S-412 96 Göteborg, Swed.), J. Johnsson, C.-O. Wene, 176-190. Uses the IEA-MARKAL model to evaluate the role of different technologies in combined heat and power district heating systems.

Item #d93apr16

Two items from Applied Energy, 44(2), 1993:

"Energy Resources, CO2 Production and Energy Conservation," P.W. O'Callaghan (Dept. Appl. Energy, Cranfield Inst. Technol., Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK), 65-91. Analyzes world reserves of fossil fuels, their projected use, and subsequent impacts on atmospheric temperature and sea level. Concludes that at present rates of consumption, fossil fuels will be exhausted by the year 2050, resulting in substantial temperature rise. World combustion of fossil fuels must be reduced by energy management and conservation, and a renewable energy economy developed.

"Energy and Environmental Management Information Systems," P.K. Martin (Energy Auditing Agency Ltd., 22 Forum, Rockingham Dr., Milton Keynes MK14 6LY, UK), 175-183. Explains the computer-based monitoring and targeting (M&T) systems being used by large U.K. firms, and how they are being extended to provide integrated energy and environmental management information systems for monitoring CO2 emissions.

Item #d93apr17

Special issue: "The Environmental Impacts of Electricity Generation," IEE Proc.-A: Sci., Measurement & Technol., 140(1), Jan. 1993. In addition to the five papers listed here, nine others deal with such topics as renewable energy sources, health risks, planning systems, and combined heat and power. Single issues £50 (Inst. Electrical Eng., Faraday House, POB 96, Stevenage, Herts SG1 2SD, UK). Copies of individual articles for a modest fee from the IEE Library (Savoy Pl., London WC2R 0BL; tel: 071-240-1871).

"Energy, Electricity and the Environment," A.E. Wheldon (Dept. Eng., Univ. Reading, Reading RG6 2AY, UK), C.E. Gregory, 2-7. This analysis of environmental impacts concludes there is no simple or single remedy for environmental damage from energy use and from electricity generation in particular. Energy efficiency and environmental costing are key themes, and international agreements on global and long-term problems are needed.

"Role of Fossil Fuels in Electricity Generation and Their Environmental Impact," A. Williams (Dept. Fuel & Energy, Leeds Univ., Leeds LS2 9JT, UK), 8-12. This survey includes available methods of emission control. The role of solid fossil fuels is expected to continue to diminish.

"Environmental Impacts of Nuclear Power: Past Experience and Future Prospects," P.R. Maul (INTERA, Chiltern House, 45 Station Rd., Henly on Thames, Oxon RG9 1AT, UK), W. Turner, I. Glendenning, 13-19. Overall, nuclear power has environmental benefits compared to other forms of power generation. It adds desirable diversity to the electricity supply.

"Environmental Impacts of Electricity Generation: Some Public Policy Dimensions," J. Chesshire (SPRU, Univ. Sussex, Mantell Bldg., Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RF, UK), 47-52. Examines some of the principal policy issues affecting the electricity supply industry, particularly global warming and acid rain. Then examines the major characteristics of the U.K. stock of generating plants and ways of adjusting it in light of environmental and wider political pressures.

"Environmental Impacts of Electricity Generated by Developing Countries: Issues, Priorities and Carbon Dioxide Emissions," P.J.G. Pearson (Dept. Econ., Univ. Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 5XH), 100ff. Examines how and why environmental issues associated with electricity generation in developing countries are becoming more pressing for all countries. Discusses in detail greenhouse gas scenarios and the possible roles that may be played by developing countries in the growth or limitation of CO2 emissions.

Item #d93apr18

Special issues of Energy in Europe. Obtain from Office for Official Pubs. of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg.

"Energy Policies and Trends in the European Communities," No. 20, 100 pp., Dec. 1992. Consists of 18 papers by EC energy program staff on topics such as EC policy on CO2 emissions stabilization, consequences of the proposed carbon/energy tax, the ALTENER program for renewables, assistance to former Soviet countries, and energy technology promotion.

"A View to the Future," Special Issue, 176 pp., Sep. 1992. Presents results of a study of European energy systems through the year 2050.

Item #d93apr19

"Can Fuel-Based Energy Production Meet the Challenge of Fighting Global Warming? A Chance for Biomass and Cogeneration," K. Sipila (Tech. Res. Ctr., Fuel Technol. Lab., SF-02150, Espoo 15, Finland), A. Johansson, K. Saviharju, Bioresource Technol., 43(1), 7-12, 1993. Considers, particularly for Finland, whether CO2 emissions can be reduced if energy production is based mainly on fossil fuels, or are nuclear and renewable sources the only options for the future?

Item #d93apr20

Three items from Energy Policy, 21(1), Jan. 1993:

"Possibilities for Substitution between Energy, Time and Information," D. Spreng (Energy Anal. Group, Swiss Fed. Inst. Technol., ETH Zentrum, ETL, 8092 Zürich, Switz.), 13-23. A discussion touching on aspects of physics, engineering and economics examines the use of these three quantities, in cumulative form, as factors of production for any economic activity. Examination of the influence of "new information technology" (NIT) on energy demand shows that NIT is used--and could be used much more--to conserve energy, but that NIT serves more often to speed up processes rather than make them more energy efficient.

"Energy and Carbon Emissions: Sub-Saharan African Perspective," O.R. Davidson (Res. & Develop. Serv., Univ. Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone), 35-43. Illustrates the importance of the full involvement of the sub-Saharan African countries in the climate change debate, and suggests policies that will allow them to support growth in energy services with less carbon-intensive technologies. Discusses how these countries can implement such policies without sacrificing development goals.

"Environmental and Economic Implications of Small Scale CHP," R. Evans (Seven Isl., South Rd., Horncastle LN9 6QB, UK), 79-91. Discusses for the U.K. the implications of small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) based on internal combustion engines fueled by natural gas. This approach offers great potential for reducing CO2 emissions.

Item #d93apr21

Two items from Energy Policy, 20(12), Dec. 1992:

"Ranking of Greenhouse Gas Abatement Measures," M.K. Wallis, Univ. Wales, Cardiff, UK), 1130-1133. A comment on previous papers. Uses a cost-benefit argument to support the conclusion that energy efficiency is preferable to increasing energy supply. Also argues that global warming potentials are a faulty measure of climatic threat.

"The Impact of CHP Generation on CO2 Emissions," A. Verbruggen (Univ. Antwerp, UFSIA, Prinstr. 13, B-2000, Antwerp, Belg.), M. Wiggin et al., 1207-1214. CHP (combined heat and power) or cogeneration generally but not always reduces CO2 emissions. This analysis demonstrates the importance of the interaction between two variables: the characteristics of the CHP process and the composition of the electricity generation sector.

Item #d93apr22

Two items from The Energy J., 13(4), Oct. 1992:

"What Does a Negawatt Really Cost? Evidence from Utility Conservation Programs," P.L. Joskow (Dept. Econ., Mass. Inst. Technol., Cambridge MA 02139), D.B. Marron, 41-74. Information reported by ten utilities on their electricity conservation programs indicates that the life-cycle cost to utilities of a "negawatt" (energy saved) is substantially higher than implied by standard sources such as Amory Lovins (Rocky Mountain Institute) and the Electric Power Research Institute. Computations based on utility expectations of savings could be underestimating the actual societal cost by a factor of two. Better utility cost accounting and more sophisticated methods of estimating actual energy savings are needed.

"Price and Cost Impacts of Utility DSM Programs," E. Hirst (Energy Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., Oak Ridge TN 37831), 75-90. Examines whether demand-side management (DSM) programs, becoming more prevalent among U.S. utilities, should aim to minimize the total cost of providing electric energy services or to minimize the price of electricity. A dynamic model yields quantitative estimates of the trade-offs between these two alternatives, showing that DSM programs generally reduce electricity costs but increase electricity prices.

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