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Global Climate Change DigestArchives of the
Global Climate Change Digest

A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999



Item #d90jun1

"Model Calculations of the Relative Effects of CFCs and Their Replacements on Stratospheric Ozone," D.A. Fisher (Du Pont Exper. Sta., Wilmington DE 19880), C.H. Hales et al., Nature, 344(6266), 508-512, Apr. 5, 1990.

Because hydrohalocarbons are destroyed by reaction with atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere, they have significantly shorter atmospheric lifetimes than CFCs, and are being examined as CFC replacements. Model calculations show that chlorine-containing hydrohalocarbons have less effect on ozone, by an order of magnitude, than CFCs.

Item #d90jun2

"Model Calculations of the Relative Effects of CFCs and Their Replacements on Global Warming," D.A. Fisher (address immed. above), C.H. Hales et al., ibid., 513-516.

Uses two separately developed atmospheric models to simulate the chemical reactions and radiative balance of the atmosphere. Results of the two models agreed well after normalizing calculated effects with respect to CFC-11, using consistent assumptions about chemical lifetimes. Concludes that the potential of the replacement compounds to affect global warming is an order of magnitude less than that of CFCs, chiefly because of shorter atmospheric lifetimes.

Item #d90jun3

"Relative Contributions of Greenhouse Gas Emissions to Global Warming," D.A. Lashof (Nat. Resour. Defense Council, 1350 New York Ave. NW, Washington DC 20005), D.R. Ahuja, ibid., 529-531.

Proposes an index of global warming potential for methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and CFCs relative to that of carbon dioxide, and applies this to determine the source of recent increases in greenhouse forcing to help establish a basis for policy development. Carbon dioxide emissions account for 80% of the contribution to global warming of current greenhouse gas emissions, but only 57% of the increase in radiative forcing during the 1980s.

Item #d90jun4

"The Global Effects of Tropical Deforestation," R.A. Houghton (Woods Hole Res. Ctr., Woods Hole MA 02543), Environ. Sci. Technol., 24(4), 414-421, Apr. 1990.

Considers the effects of tropical deforestation on emissions of trace gases and on the earth's atmosphere and climate, emphasizing the effect from CO2 emissions. Explains three strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forests. Urges policies to stabilize CO2 in the atmosphere that include a reduction of fossil fuel use, an end to deforestation, and an increase in the area of forests.

Item #d90jun5

"Precise Monitoring of Global Temperature Trends from Satellites," R.W. Spencer (Marshall Space Flight Ctr., Code ES43, Huntsville AL 35812), J.R. Christy, Science, 247(4950), 1558-1560, Mar. 30, 1990.

Analysis of the first 10 years (1979-1988) of satellite measurements of lower atmospheric temperature changes reveals a monthly precision of 0.01° C and large temperature variability on time scales from weeks to several years, but no obvious trend for the 10-year period.

Item #d90jun6

"Observational Constraints on the Global Atmospheric CO2 Budget," P.P. Tans (CIRES, Campus Box 216, Univ. Colo., Boulder CO 80309), I.Y. Fung, T. Takahashi, ibid., 1431-1435, Mar. 23, 1990.

Comparison of observations with general circulation model results shows that the observed differences between the partial pressures of CO2 in the surface waters of the Northern Hemisphere and the atmosphere are too small for the oceans to be the major sink of fossil fuel CO2. Therefore, a large amount of the CO2 is apparently absorbed on the continents by terrestrial ecosystems.

Item #d90jun7

"Cloud Albedo, Greenhouse Effects, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate Change," J.E. Penner (Lawrence Livermore Lab., Univ. Calif., POB 808, Livermore, Calif.), J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 40(4), 456-461, Apr. 1990.

Summarizes recent research in trends in long-lived species such as CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs; trends in short-lived species such as NOx and SOx; and changes in cloud optical properties. Explains the need to develop 3-D global chemistry and climate models to evaluate the effects of these emissions and understand quantitative changes in climate that may occur in the future.

Item #d90jun8

"The United States Global Change Research Program (US/GCRP): An Overview and Perspectives on the FY 1991 Program," R.W. Corell (Nat. Sci. Foundation, Washington DC 20550), Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 71(4), 507-511, Apr. 1990.

The United States Global Change Research Program represents an integrated, government-wide scientific effort designed to document, understand and predict changes in the global environment to provide the foundation for national and international policy making. The proposed budget details a coordinated program of research that involves seven agencies and includes a major new initiative: the Earth Observing System, EOS. (See REPORTS/EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCE, this Global Climate Change Digest issue--June 1990.) Issues: Toward a Strategic Plan for A&WMA," D.G. Fox (USDA-For. Serv., Rocky Mountain For. & Range Exper. Sta., Fort Collins CO 80526), J. Air Waste Mgmt. Assoc., 40(3), 376-377, Mar. 1990.

Proposes that the Air and Waste Management Association is the appropriate organization to facilitate the necessary debates over global change, to provide professional leadership, to educate the public, and to aid in the formulation of responsible policies. The Association has made global change one of its major themes; suggestions for Association initiatives on this topic are welcomed by the author.

Item #d90jun9

"A First Approach to Assessing Future Climate States in the UK Over Very Long Timescales: Input to Studies of the Integrity of Radioactive Waste Repositories," C.M. Goodess (Clim. Res. Unit, Univ. East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK), J.P. Palutikof, T.D. Davies, Clim. Change, 16, 115-140, 1990.

As part of the UK disposal safety assessment program, time-dependent models of the repository environment are being developed. Two methods are being employed: the Milankovitch theory and an empirical analysis of the long-term reconstructed climate record. The climate sequence established using these methods will form the basis for studying related processes, such as erosion and groundwater movement and transfer by vegetation, and their implications for radioactive waste disposal.

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